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Today’s post was written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives in College Park.
An excellent source for answering the questions posed in the title of this post, and other military questions, is the records of the Office of the Adjutant General (Record Group 407). Specifically, to answer the official designation question, I went to Files AG 000.4 Naming of Wars (1 Aug 45) and AG 055 World War II 3-1-45 — 12-31-45 within Entry 363A Army AG Decimal File 1940-1945 [NAID 895294]. Below is the information I located that answered the questions posed.
During the summer of 1945 the War Department determined that it needed to expeditiously come up with an official name for the war the United States was fighting at the time. The Operations Division of the War Department was tasked with making a recommendation regarding a name designation for the war. After undertaking some research and consulting with other elements of the War Department, Brigadier General Thomas North, Chief, Current Group, writing for the Acting Assistant Chief of Staff, Operations Division, War Department, on August 1, 1945, wrote to the commanding generals of the Army Service Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Air Force, regarding the “Official Designation of Present War.” He mentioned that in official documents, Acts of Congress, publications and in current usage various names and designations had been applied to hostilities which began December 7, 1941. He pointed out that in communications and records of various committees of the Congress, reference had been made to “‘the wars in which the United States is presently engaged.’” He noted:
By letter dated 31 July 1919, President Wilson recommended that the war against the Central Powers be named ‘The World War.’ By General Orders No. 115, dated 7 October 1919, War Department directed: ‘The war against the Central Powers of Europe, in which the United States has taken part, will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘The World War.’
General North suggested that as a matter of simplicity, and to ensure uniform terminology, it was desirable to have an officially designated name for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities. He observed that the Bureau of Public Relations, after analysis of records of publications and radio usage, stated that the term “World War II” had been accepted by common usage. He added that the term “World War II” to designate the present hostilities had been used in at least seven public laws. Therefore, the Operations Division recommended that the term “World War II” be announced in General Orders to designate the war in which United States forces had participated since December 7, 1941. He requested the recipients’ comments. All three recipients concurred with the term World War II.
After obtaining the concurrences of Army Service Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Air Force, the Current Group, Operations Division, War Department, on August 19 wrote the War Department’s G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 for their concurrence. They concurred, with G-1, suggesting the proposal should be coordinated with the Navy Department and G-2 suggesting that the matter be presented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the president as a recommendation that he officially announce the designation as “World War II.” Then more concurrences were sought regarding the G-1 and G-2 suggestions.
Finally, on August 31, the Assistant Chief of Staff, Operations Division, War Department, wrote the Army Chief of Staff and the Secretary of War, asking for the approval of the former and the signature of the latter to enclosed draft letters to the Secretary of the Navy and a joint letter to the President. In this communication Lt. Gen. J. E. Hull, provided the basic background as had been written by General North on August 1. Henry L. Stimson, the Secretary of War, wrote the Secretary of the Navy on September 5 with background information regarding the term World War II and the desire for its official recognition by the President. Stimson enclosed a letter which he had prepared for their signatures addressed to the President recommending that the term “World War II” be the officially designated for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities, with the further recommendation that the title “World War II” be published in the Federal Register as the official name of the present war. Stimson indicated to Secretary Forrestal that he had already signed the enclosed letter and recommended that if he concurred, the joint letter be sent to the President for approval.
A little over a week later, on September 10, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal wrote President Truman:
President Wilson, under date of July 31, 1919, addressed a letter to Secretary of War Baker which read, in part, as follows:
It is hard to find a satisfactory ‘official’ name for the war, but the best, I think, that has been suggested is ‘The World War’, and I hope that your judgment will concur.
Subsequently, under date of October 7, 1919, War Department General orders No. 115 directed:
The war against the Central Powers of Europe, in which the United States has taken part, will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘The World War.’
As a matter of simplicity and to insure uniform terminology, it is recommended that ‘World War II’ be the officially designated name for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities.
The term ‘World War II’ has been used in at least seven public laws to designate this period of hostilities. Analysis of publications and radio programs indicates that this term has been accepted by common usage.
If this recommended is approved it is further recommended that the title ‘World War II’ be published in the Federal Register as the official name of the present war.
At the bottom on this communication, President Truman, signed Approved, Sept. 11, 1945, Harry Truman.
Three days later, on September 14, Brig. Gen. Thomas North, Chief, Current Group, Operations Division of the War Department wrote The Adjutant General that the Secretary of War directed “that information substantially as follows be published in a War Department General Order:
Official Designation of the Present War
The war in which the United States has been engaged since 8 December 1941 will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘World War II.’”
General North added that the Secretary of War directed that a letter “substantially as follows be forwarded to Mr. B. R. Kennedy, Director, Division of the Federal Register, National Archives, Washington, 25, D.C. (Attention: Mr. Eberhart):
The President on 11 September 1945 approved the enclosed letter of 10 September 1945 signed jointly by the Secretaries of War and the navy recommending that the term ‘World War II’ be officially designated as the name for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities. Further, it was recommended that the title ‘World War II’ be published in the Federal Register as the official name of the present war.
It is requested that the Director, Division of the Federal Register, comply with the latter recommendation and advise the Adjutant General when the action is accomplished.
General North enclosed the original letter signed by the Secretaries of War and the Navy and approved by the President, together with three certified copies, and asked they be forwarded as enclosures to the communication to the Division of the Federal Register.
As instructed, Maj. Gen. Edward F. Witsell, Acting the Adjutant General, wrote the Director, Division of the Federal Register on September 17 with the request for publication, enclosing the letter cited above. It was published (see 10 Federal Register 1188).
Paragraph No. I of War Department General Orders No. 80, dated September 19, 1945, provided “The war in which the United States has been engaged since 8 December 1941 will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘World War II.’”
Today’s post was written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives in College Park.
In looking at some boxes of the Reference Collection of the Departmental Records Branch of the Army’s Office of the Adjutant General (Record Group 407), I stumbled upon two boxes labeled “Protection of Monuments.” They carried the designation “Document No. 231” and contained lists, prepared in 1943 by the American Defense, Harvard Group, of cultural monuments in various countries. The contents of the two boxes did not seem to contain a complete set of these mimeographed publications. I knew that within the Records of The American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas (Record Group 239, the so-called Roberts Commission) were more of these listings, perhaps a complete set. I was curious as to whether the set in the records of the Roberts Commission was indeed complete and if not, could one find a missing list in the two boxes of Adjutant General’s records. As the first step I knew that I needed to find a listing of the complete set. This I found online via the Harvard University Archives’ holdings of the records of the American Defense, Harvard Group.
Before discussing my quest to ascertain what the National Archives and Records Administration held vis a vis the Harvard University Archives, it might be useful for the reader to know something about the American Defense, Harvard Group, and its Committee on the Protection of Monuments.
The American Defense, Harvard Group was an independent organization organized in June 1940 by a small group of Harvard faculty members to alert Americans to the dangers posed by the Axis powers after the fall of France. Initially launched to aid America’s allies in Europe and Asia and prepare America for eventual participation in the conflict, the Group helped mobilize support for America’s war effort after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. After America’s entry into the war the Group cooperated in various national defense activities.
The Group sought support from Harvard faculty, administration, clerical staff, wives, and Cambridge residents. Eventually, its membership reached more than 1700 names, with an active roster of 240 volunteers. Harvard professor of philosophy Ralph Barton Perry served as President of the Group and Paul J. Sachs (director of Harvard University’s Fogg Museum) as Chairman. Also playing key role in the Group were W. G. Constable (curator of painting at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts) and Hugh O’Neill Hencken (Associate in European Archaeology at Harvard University and Assistant Curator of European Archaeology at the Peabody Museum).
An important activity of the Group was the work of its Committee on the Protection of Monuments. The chief work of this committee was carried out by a subcommittee appointed on March 20, 1943, consisting of Sachs, Constable, and Hencken. They began to work in response to the request of March 10 from Lt. Col. James H. Shoemaker of the Military Government Division of the Office of the Provost Marshal General that there be assembled information on objects and monuments which might need protection in possible theaters of war or occupied territories. Hencken was released by the Peabody Museum to act as general organizer of the project, and all the clerical work was performed by the Group, much by volunteers. Appeals were at once made to a wide circle of sixty-one in number, who had special knowledge of the various countries concerned.
In less than three months the first lists of cultural monuments were being sent to Washington, D.C., the one for Sicily being dispatched on June 12, nearly three weeks before the invasion of that island. The Directive for the Sicilian invasion (Operation Husky) provided that “So far as consistent with military necessity all efforts will be made to preserve local archives, historical and classical monuments and objects of art.” Force 141 (afterwards 15th Army Group) sent a cable to the War Department on June 27, asking it to obtain and send immediately by fast air mail material on public monuments in Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia. The material was prepared by Lt. Col. Shoemaker. It included an introduction dealing with the cultural monuments protection problems in general and lists of principal monuments of art to be found in Sicily and Sardinia. It was forwarded to Force 141 on July 1 and received on July 2.
The committee produced two types of lists in mimeographed form, for each country. The longer lists were prefaced by an introduction outlining the significance of the material in the national and religious sentiment of the country in question, and a short historical outline. Each list was prepared by individuals or groups with special knowledge of the countries concerned, and included material not to be found in guidebooks. Throughout, special care was taken to include material which for any reason was treasured or revered by the local population, quite apart from any general historical or artistic interest. In addition, shorter lists were prepared for most countries, which were based on the longer lists, but included only monuments of outstanding importance. These were primarily designed for incorporation in manuals prepared by the War Department dealing with all aspects of military government.
Below is a listing of countries and indication whether they had only a long list or both a long list and short list prepared for it:
Albania, long and short lists
Austria, long and short lists
Belgium and Luxembourg, long and short lists
Bulgaria, long and short lists
Czechoslovakia, long and short lists
Denmark, long and short lists
France, long and short lists
Central France, long list,
Northern France, long list
South France, long list
Germany, long and short lists
Germany, Western, long list
Germany, North-Eastern, long list
Germany, North-Western, long list
Germany, South, long list
Greece, long and short lists
Holland, long and short lists
Hungary, long and short lists
Italy, introduction, long and short lists
Italy, Central, long list
Italy, North, long list
Italy, Northeast, long list
Italy, Northwest, long list
Italy, South, long list
Italy, Sardinia and Sicily, long list,
Norway, long and short lists
Rumania, long and short lists
Tunisia, long and short lists
Jugoslavia [Yugoslavia], long and short lists
China, long list
Indo-China, long list
Japan, long list
Korea, long list
Netherlands East Indies, long and short lists
Siam, Thailand, long list
The lists for China, Japan, Korea, and Siam were prepared by Langdon Warner, archaeologist and art historian specializing in East Asian art. He was a professor at Harvard and the Curator of Oriental Art at Harvard University’s Fogg Museum.
As it turns out the Roberts Commission records contain copies of all of the short lists and copies of all of the long lists, except for that of the Netherlands East Indies. A copy of that list can be found in the Reference Collection of the Departmental Records Branch of the Army’s Office of the Adjutant General (Record Group 407), under the file designation “Document No. 231.”
In 1943, the Group also prepared a two-part manual entitled “Notes on Safeguarding and Conserving Cultural Materials in the Field.” Part I was authored by W. G. Constable and George L. Stout (head of the Fogg Museum’s conservation since 1933). Part I related to the application of the principles of “first aid” to cultural material. Stout, from the Fogg Museum, in 1944, as a Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives officer, would be putting into practice what he had written. Part II was edited by Constable and contained information supplied by Prentice Duell, Murray Pease , Evelyn Ehrlich, William J. Young, Walter Hauser, Stephen V. Grancsay, Jean Reed, Robert C. Murphy, Hugh Hencken, and Frederick Preston Orchard. Parts I and II of the publication can be viewed here.
 The lists are part of the series Handbooks and Lists of Monuments, 1943–1945 (NAID 1537349), RG 239, and reproduced on rolls 95-99 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1944 and available online at www.fold3.com.
 Extract from Directive for Husky-Paraphrase, Tab A to Memorandum, Maj. Gen. J. H. Hilldring, Chief, Civil Affairs Division to Assistant Secretary of War, Subject: Protection of Historic Monuments, July 21, 1943, File: CAD 000.4 (3-25-43) (1), Security Classified General Correspondence, 1943-July 1949 (NAID 3376702), RG 165.
 Summary of preliminary material forwarded 1 July, Tab C to Memorandum, Maj. Gen. J. H. Hilldring, Chief, Civil Affairs Division to Assistant Secretary of War, Subject: Protection of Historic Monuments, July 21, 1943, File: CAD 000.4 (3-25-43) (1), Security Classified General Correspondence, 1943-July 1949 (NAID 3376702); Cable from Chief of Staff, July 2, Extracts from Cables-In Paraphrase, Tab B, ibid.
 Notes on Safeguarding and Conserving Cultural Materials in the Field, 1943 (NAID 1537348), RG 239, and reproduced on roll 95 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1944 and available on Fold3.
Today’s post was written by Dr. Tina Ligon, Archivist at the National Archives at College Park, MD.
This summer, the National Archives at College Park brought in nine interns from across the country to learn about the archival profession. The interns had the opportunity to assist in customer service and with several current processing projects, under the guidance of archivists and an archives specialist. Below are brief descriptions of the interns’ experiences at the National Archives.
L to R: Summer Interns Benjamin, Delaney, Peyton, Delany, Archivist Tina Ligon, Interns Conor, Chris, Mary and Mark (Damon Turner not pictured)
Peyton Brown (Mary Washington University)
Project: Registered Product Labels Processing Project
“As an intern this summer at the National Archives II in College Park, Maryland, I worked with patents for labels dating from 1874 to 1940. My job was to take the information from the patents and put it into a computer system [Holding Maintenance and Sofa System] to make it available online. I scanned particularly important patents so that their images will be available online as well. Throughout my internship, the archivists I was privileged to meet at NARA have been extremely helpful in instructing me and answering all of my questions regarding a career in the archival field. My experience here at the National Archives has been truly valuable because of the knowledge and experience I have gained.”
Chris Carter (University of Maryland, College Park)
Project: 2014 Description Project
“Before starting work in January, my experience was in smaller archives without the large quantities of records found here at the National Archives. I knew describing the records here in College Park would be like nothing I had done before, and so I was eager to learn what I could from my co-workers here at the National Archives. Along the way, I provided accession-level description for the records of the United States Army, Pacific; the Department of Education; and the Forest Service. I described these records for the benefit of researchers. I also learned how to look through the folder titles for ARC [Archival Research Catalog]-compliant titles and through the contents of the folders for creating organizations, not always an easy task. While browsing these records, I learned the intricacies of FOIA and how it affects user access of the records. I continue to look forward to learning more here at the National Archives in College Park.”
Delaney Cruickshank (College of Charleston)
Project: Reference and Customer Service
“Working for the National Archives has been a wonderful experience. Everyone has been so friendly, and I’m learning a lot about the archival process. I love the fact that I can work directly with not just the researchers, but the records themselves. Thanks to this internship, I am considering becoming an Archivist after I graduate college.”
Delaney Cummings (Coe College)
Project: RG 64 Records of the National Archives Processing Project
“I loved my experience as an intern at the Archives. This internship has allowed me to work alongside extremely talented Archivists who take interest in interns and have helped provide me with various opportunities to learn this summer. As an intern, I am working within one specific department which gives me an in depth understanding of the work done. Yet, included with that I am given the opportunity to tour different labs within Archives II, as well as tour Archives I. This gives me not only a further understanding of the different types of careers archivists can have, but also shows me how what I do plays a role at the Archives as a whole. I could not ask for a better, more welcoming agency to intern with this summer. The knowledge I am gaining will be immensely valuable for my future career.”
Mary Kendig (University of Maryland, College Park)
Project: Reference and Customer Service
“My exciting internship at the National Archives truly affected my college experience. It enabled me to work with military records and implement the information I learned in my college history courses. Due to my experience, I plan to enter the archival career. Originally, I thought I would become a high school history teacher or I would work at a museum. After working at NARA, I know without a doubt that I will go straight into graduate school to earn a master in library science. One day, I hope to return to NARA as a professional employee. I would recommend the National Archives to every student as an internship program. Even if one is not interested in the military, general history, or civilian records; there are other administrative opportunities at the archives, including human resources, accounting, and business administration. The atmosphere is ideal for beginning and advanced interns because all the employees are pleasant and well qualified. Regardless of the atmosphere and the experience, working at NARA is just plain fun. It’s rare to find a college internship that’s enjoyable and truly engages your educational goals; the National Archives fits both criteria.”
Mark A. Proctor (Stevenson University)
Project: “Subject Files, August 1943-1945″ of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force Digitization Project
“My experience at the National Archives was great. I got to work with actual records, get a behind- the-scenes look at what goes on at NARA, and learn about the many different ways in which NARA handles and deals with all types of records. While shadowing in the research room, I got to see firsthand the relationship NARA has with researchers, students, and professors who come in to find information for a paper or book they are writing. While interning, there was no shortage of work, and I was never bored. There was always something else productive to do. Everyone in my office was extremely nice, helpful, and welcoming when I first got here and this continued throughout my entire internship. This made me feel like I was a part of the team and not just some “intern,” which made this internship an experience to remember.”
Conor Snow (Goucher College)
Project: Reference and Customer Service
“I worked in the Textual Reference Department at the National Archives in College Park. I worked both behind the scenes and with the public, which provided me with a wonderful balance of working on my own and with researchers. Whilst in the research room, which could get very busy, I pretty much pointed researchers to the records that they needed. This can be a very difficult process for researchers of all experience levels, and it was my job to help them out. I got the opportunity to meet so many awesome people while working in the research room and learn from them as well. When I was not in the research room, I spent my time in my time responding to researchers’ letters from around the world. I absolutely loved my time spent as an intern at Archives II. It was truly an incredible opportunity to work with great staff, leaders and gain first-hand experience of life at the National Archives.”
We would like to extend our thanks and appreciation to all of the interns and the hard work they accomplished and wish them all the best in their future endeavors.
TAGS Benjamin Shaw
, Chris Carter
, Conor Snow
, Damon Turner
, Delaney Cruickshank
, Delaney Cummings
, Mark Proctor
, Mary Kendig
, Peyton Brown
Today’s post is written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives in College Park, MD.
On June 14, 1945 1st Lt. Stephen Kovalyak, a Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFA&A) officer, came to Alt Aussee, Austria with Lt. George Stout, USNR, another MFA&A officer, with the 12th Army Group, to evacuate the looted art works stored in the mine at Alt Aussee. Very early on Kovalyak met a German prisoner of war, Karl Kress, who had worked with the Nazi art looting unit, the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR), photographing looted art works. Kovalyak, an amateur photographer, was interested in what he could learn about photography from Kress and soon made him his personal prisoner of war. Shortly thereafter, Kress would be working for U.S. Army as a photographer of recovered looted art.
Kress was born February 6, 1900 at Dotzheim, Kreis Wiesbaden. He served in the German Army from the end of World War I until June 1930, when he became technical assistant to the State Art Collections at Kassel. There his primary duty was that of a photographer. In 1939 Kress was called to active duty with the Luftwaffe as photographer, and assigned to a photographic unit, with the rank of Feldwebel (Staff Sergeant). The unit was transferred to Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the western suburbs of Paris, in June 1940.
In November 1940 Kress was ordered by his commanding officer to proceed to Paris with three assistants for the purpose of photographing art objects. These art objects he learned had been confiscated by the ERR and were stored near the Louvre at the Jeu de Paume a museum in the Jardins des Tuileries. The ERR, formed under the direction of Alfred Rosenberg, had originally as its primary function the collection of political material in the occupied countries, for exploitation in the “struggle against Jewry and Freemasonry.” The Western Office (Amt Westen) of the Rosenberg-headed Ministry for Occupied Eastern Territories became operational in July 1940, with headquarters in Paris. Amt Westen was directed at the outset by Stabsfuehrer Dr. Georg Ebert, assisted by Baron Kurt von Behr.
Starting in October 1940, on Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering’s instigation, the ERR began taking over almost all of the seized art in France—not only paintings and works on paper, but also antique furniture, carpets, tapestries, objects d’art, and antiquities. Goering was anxious to enrich his own collections, and could offer Luftwaffe and other assistance for seizure, processing arrangements, and transport, while he manipulated further ERR art-looting operations in France. The initial collections brought to the German Embassy in Paris were moved first to several rooms in the Louvre, but space there was too limited. By the end of October, the ERR set up shop for processing at the Jeu de Paume. On November 5, a Goering order issued in Paris extended formally the authority of the ERR to include the confiscation of “ownerless” Jewish art collections, and, thereby altered the emphasis of the ERR mission so as to make such activity its primary function.
When Kress reported to the Jeu de Paume the museum was already full of art objects. There he met Drs. Gunther Schiedlausky, Hans Ulrich Wirth, and Heinrich Jerchel. They worked for the Paris Dienststelle of Amt Westen. This office, in addition to a staff of photographers, consisted of a small group of professional art historians who worked as a unit designated as the Arbeitsgruppe Louvre. The function of this unit was the methodical preparation for transport to Germany of all works of art received through confiscation, and a comprehensive inventory thereof. At the outset, this group comprised Drs. Schiedlausky, Hans Ulrich Wirth, W. Esser, Heinrich Jerchel, Friedrich Franz Kuntze, and several research assistants. Schiedlausky, was a leading member of the ERR art staff from November 1940 to December 1941, and chief custodian of the German deposits of the ERR from July 1942 until April 1945. Wirth, joined the Paris art staff of the ERR in November 1940 as one of the assistants to Schiedlausky. He was responsible for preparing inventories of important collections which had just been confiscated. Jerchel, who originally served with the Kunstschutz (the Wehrmacht’s Art Protection Office), was transferred to the ERR in November 1940 with duties similar to that of Wirth. Once situated at the Jeu de Paume, Kress was assigned the task of photographing a large number of paintings that had been confiscated by the ERR.
Kress’ first photographic assignment was to take about forty photographs for Dr. Hermann Bunjes, who was not connected with the ERR. Bunges, who wore several hats while in Paris, including being the Director of the German Art Historical Institute, a member of the Kunstschutz, and an advisor to Goering, later told Kress the art works he had photographed had been flown to Germany and given to Adolf Hitler.
Von Behr quickly recognized Kress’ ability as a professional art photographer, and sought to have him transferred to the ERR. Von Behr was the Deputy Director of Amt Westen, Director of the Paris ERR Kunststab, and subsequently Director of Dienststelle Westen and the confiscated furniture operation, the Möbel-Aktion (M-Action). As part of the Kress transfer process, in 1941 he was ordered to the Cultural Photographic Unit in the Air Ministry, and then transferred to the ERR. He was returned to Paris from Berlin, and put to work in the Jeu de Paume. At this time, Kress met and worked under Drs. Bruno Lohse and Friedrich Franz Kuntze. Lohse was a member of the Paris art staff from February 1941, subsequently its Deputy Director, and special art representative of Goering in the ERR. Kuntze, both a painter and art historian by profession, was assigned to duty with the ERR in Paris in February 1941. He arrived simultaneously with Lohse and occupied a position entailing research and the compiling of inventories, but appears to have been somewhat more independent than the other research assistants in that he occasionally proposed works of art for exchange and for acquisition by Goering.
In conformity with Adolf Hitler’s order of November 18, 1940, the greater part of the material confiscated by the ERR was sent to Germany for safekeeping and for Hitler’s ultimate disposition. The first shipment of ERR material from France to Germany took place in April 1941. Between that date and July 1944, 29 shipments were sent into the Reich. The shipments comprised 138 freight carloads, containing 4,174 cases of work destined for six separate protected deposits. These deposits were: Schloss Neuschwanstein (Kreis Füssen); Schloss Chiemsee (Herreninsel, Kreis Traunstein); Cloister Buxheim (Kreis Memmingen); Schloss Kogl (St. Georgen/ Kreis Vöcklabruck); Schloss Seisenegg (Kreis Amstetten); and, Schloss Nickolsburg (Kreis Nickolsburg).
During the summer of 1941, just months after the German invasion and occupation of Greece, Kress was ordered to Salonika to accompany Professor Franz Dölger on an expedition to Mount Athos. Dölger, a distinguished professor of Byzantine studies at the University of Munich since 1931, was to focus on historical and theological issues. His expedition was officially sponsored by Alfred Rosenberg in his capacity as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, and was supported by the Wehrmacht. Kress was to later recall that the purpose of the expedition from his perspective was to make cultural propaganda photographs. Kress spent six months on the project and subsequently Dölger’s account of his visit to Mount Athos was printed in the book Mönchsland Athos (Munich: 1943). After completing this mission, Kress returned to Paris in 1942 to resume work under Lohse.
When Kress returned to Paris he found that Luftwaffe corporal Heinz Simokat had been installed by Lohse as the ERR’s chief photographer. Thus with little photographic work to do, Kress set himself the task of compiling an orderly set of negatives, inasmuch as he had found the files in a state of disorder on his return from Greece. He also began spending more time in the photographic section of the Amt Rosenberg (Rosenberg’s headquarters) in Berlin than with the ERR in Paris.
At some point, in 1943 or 1944, Simokat, at his own request, was returned to active military duty, and Rudolf Scholz became the leading ERR photographer, responsible to art historian Dr. Walter Borchers (Obergefreiter in the Luftwaffe) who had become head of the Arbeitsgruppe Louvre. Rudolf was a nephew of Dr. Robert Scholz – Bereichsleiter (Divisional Director) of the Rosenberg Amt Bildende Kunst (Office for Pictorial Arts), Berlin; and, responsible for the professional conduct of the Paris art staff of the ERR.
Kress, at some point in 1943, was sent to Riga and Kiev on short photographic missions, and also worked in the ERR deposits at Neuchwanstein/Fussen and Chiemsee, in Bavaria.
Meanwhile, ERR shipments continued to be sent to the ERR deposits in Germany and Austria through February 1944, at which time the Reichschancellery (because of the increasing danger from air raids) ordered the major deposits evacuated and their contents brought to Alt Aussee, Austria, for storage in the salt mine there.
Shortly before the heavy air raids on Berlin began in 1944, Kress was given the responsibility of assembling the entire ERR file of photographic negatives and moving it to Neuchwanstein/Fussen for safekeeping. Subsequently, he was ordered to move the entire file to the ERR center at Schloss Kogl/St. Georgen. Shortly before the American entry into the area, the files were once again moved from Kogl to Fussen. The final transfer of material was undertaken by Lohse, acting under Scholz’s orders.
During 1944 Kress made a number of short trips to Paris in order to bring photographic material from the Luftwaffe unit station to Germany. In addition, he was given the assignment by Robert Scholz of bringing Baron von Behr’s Dienststelle Westen household effects (china, linen, silver, etc) confiscated in the M-Action, to Germany for the use by ERR personnel.
As late as the night of May 3-4, 1945 Scholz and Kress were at Schloss Kogl. Scholz then sent Kress to the Alt Altssee deposit very shortly before U.S. troops occupied the area. When the troops captured the mine at Alt Aussee on May 8, Kress, then a Stabsfeldwebel (Master Sergeant) was made a prisoner of war. He was kept at Alt Aussee to provide information to the MFA&A specialists when they arrived. They arrived in the persons of Third U.S. Army Monuments Men Capt. Robert K. Posey and Pfc Lincoln Kirstein on May 16. In his semi-monthly report Posey noted that “All his negatives and equipment from Schloss Kogl also seized and held.”
During the first week of June U.S. Army war crimes investigator Capt. W. A. Rembert, who was at Alt Aussee, had photographs taken by U.S. Army Signal Corps photographers of the mine, buildings, and personnel at Alt Aussee. Among the photographs are two, taken on June 5, that include Kress: One is captioned: “German technicians stationed at the mine at Alt Aussee, Austria, prior to American entry, in connection with processing and care and preservation of the art treasures therein. From left to right: Karl Kress, chief photograph for the Einsatzstab Rosenberg; Max Eder, Engineer; Dr. Hermann Michel, chemist; Hans Danner, surveyor; Karl Sieber, painting restorer.” The other was captioned: “From left to right: Karl Kress, Einsatzstab Rosenberg photographer; Capt. Rembert, Investiogator; Karl Sieber, restorer; and Tec 5 Bauer, interpreter for Capt. Rembert – in Konig Josef Cavern of the mine at Alt Aussee, Austria, in which chamber most of the loot of the Einsatzstab Rosenberg was stored.”
On June 14 Kovalyak came to Alt Aussee with Lt. George Stout, USNR, to help with the evacuation of the art treasures in the mine. This is where he met Kress. MFA&A officers Lt. Thomas C. Howe, Jr., USNR and 2nd Lt. Lamont Moore arrived at Alt Aussee in July to assist in the evacuation. They would also meet Kress. Howe would later write that Stephen Kovalyak had made Kress his personal prisoner of war since his arrival at Alt Aussee. He noted that “Steve was an enthusiastic amateur and had acquired all kinds of photographic equipment. Kress, we gathered, was showing him how to use it. Their ‘conversations’ were something of a mystery, because Steve knew no German, Kress no English.” In response to a question about how he communicated with Kress, Kovalyak said he used his “High German.” Howe wrote that:
We came to the conclusion that ‘High German’ was so called because it transcended all known rules of grammar and pronunciation. But, for the two of them, it worked. Steve-stocky, gruff and belligerent-and Kress-timid, beady-eyed and patient-would spend hours together. They were a comical pair. Steve was always in command and very much the captor. Kress was long-suffering and had a kind of doglike devotion to his master, whose alternating jocular and tyrannical moods he seemed to accept with equanimity and understand. But all this we learned later.
Just about the time that Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak were wrapping up their evacuation work at Alt Aussee and preparing to go on their next assignment, the evacuation of the Hermann Goering collection at Berchtesgaden, Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Art Looting Investigation Unit (ALIU) member Lt. Theodore Rousseau, USNR at Bad Aussee (3 miles south of Alt Aussee) telephoned Howe and inquired whether they were planning to take Kress with them to Berchtesgaden. Howe told him they certainly were, later writing that “Steve would sooner have parted with his right eye.” Rousseau indicated that they wanted to interrogate Kress before they left and said it might take a few days. Howe suggested that they start right away, as they would soon be needing Kress themselves. “Steve,” Howe noted, “was wild when he heard about it. I agreed that it was a nuisance but that we’d have to oblige. The OSS boys came for Kress that afternoon. Steve watched them, balefully, as they drove off down the mountain.”
The ALIU interrogated Kress at Bad Aussee on July 20-21. After the interrogation, the ALIU compiled Detailed Interrogation Report No. 10 regarding Kress. In the report it was noted that Kress, since his capture, had continued to function as a photographer “under the supervision of G-5, Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Branch, Third U.S. Army.” In the Summary section of the report ALIU director Lt. James Plaut, USNR, wrote that Kress affirmed that his activity with the ERR was confined wholly to the photographing of works of art in the Jeu de Paume and that he never accompanied ERR personnel to private dwellings, either prior to or in the course of confiscation operations. Kress claimed, Plaut wrote, that he owned no works of art whatever, and that he engaged at no time in the traffic of objects of art. “Kress,” Plaut noted, “is a ‘little man’ with a weak personality. It is conceivable that he engaged in some petty thievery, but it is not likely that he was involved in any large-scale, illegal transfers of art objects.” Concluding, Plaut wrote
No action is recommended; however, Kress was released prematurely from interrogation, in deference to G-5, MFA&A 3rd Army, to do urgent photographic work. In view of his close relationship to Utikal and other key E.R.R. personnel, he is wanted for further interrogation by this unit.
Utikal was Stabsfuehrer Gerhard Utikal, who in 1941, replaced Dr. Georg Ebert and was also given complete responsibility for ERR activities in all countries. Simultaneously, von Behr was made responsible for all ERR operations in France.
It appears that Kress was never questioned again by the ALIU. He was, however, on July 25, at Bad Aussee, questioned by U.S. Army war crimes investigator Capt. Rembert. Kress said that since he worked inside the Jeu de Paume, he did not know who carried out the confiscation of art objects, nor could he say who brought the art objects into the Jeu de Paume. He did say they were received there by Schiedlausky. He provided information about Utikal, Scholz, Lohse, and others. As for von Behr, he observed he “has played a big part in the Einsatzstab and was very much feared.” He also provided information regarding art dealers Walter Andreas Hofer and Gustav Rochlitz.
While Kress was at Bad Aussee, Howe and Moore went to Berchtesgaden to start the evacuation of the Goering Collecting. In anticipation of Kress’ arrival they assembled all the paintings that appeared to have suffered recent damage of any kind. Kress’ first job would be to make a photographic record which they would include in their final report on the evacuation of the collection. They found thirty-four pictures in this category. When Kovalyak joined them at Berchtesgaden he brought along in their car Kress, “looking more timid than ever” according to Howe. Kovalyak told Howe and Moore that Kress had had a bad time after they left Alt Aussee:
the boys at House 71 [the house used by the ALIU team] had clapped him in jail and left him there for two days before interrogating him Steve had been ‘burned up’ about it and had given them a piece of his mind. He said contemptuously that he known all along they didn’t have anything on Kress. But he was content to let bygones be bygones. Steve had his man Friday back again.
Besides Kress, Kovalyak had also brought along a 2 ½-ton Army cargo truck that contained all of Kress’ photographic equipment. “There was,” according to Howe, “a tremendous lot of stuff: three large cameras, a metal table for drying prints, reflectors, a sink, pipes of various sizes, boxes of film and paper; and a couple of large cabinets.” Very quickly Kress was put to work taking photographs.
In mid-August, with the Goering Collection safely deposited at the Munich Central Collecting Point, Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak moved on to their next evacuation mission, that of the ERR records and some art treasures stored at the castle at Neuschwanstein. They brought Kress with them. Not only could he photograph the artwork, he also knew the castle and its holdings very well, having worked there in 1943 and 1944. In the castle they located the two rooms which had been used as a photographic laboratory and Kovalyak arranged to have Kress’ equipment installed there. The Neuschwanstein evacuation operation lasted eight days.
When the evacuation team returned to Munich with what they had collected at the castle, it is not clear whether they brought Kress with them. Once back at Munich the team immediately became involved in restitution activities that would not have involved Kress. The last reference to him I located was a note, that indicated as of September 1945, he was under house arrest. There was no reference to location. By the end of February 1946, Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak had returned to the United States. As for Kress, I could not locate any record that explains what happened to him after his adventures with the MFA&A Special Evacuation Team.
 Robert K. Posey, Capt., Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives, G-5 Section, Headquarters, Third United States Army to MFA and A, G-5 Section, Headquarters, Twelfth Army Group, Subject: Semi-Monthly Report on Monuments, fine Arts and Archives for Period Ending 31 May 1945, File: Third U.S. Army Reports-January thru May 1945, Activity Reports, 1945, “Ardelia Hall Collection” (NAID 1561462), Record Group 260 (Roll 31 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941).
 The photographs are Exhibits 24 and 30 to File 3JA187 of the War Crimes Office of the Judge Advocate General of the U.S. Third Army. The report, captioned “Report of Information of Alleged War Crimes,” was prepared by the Office of the Commanding General of the U.S. Third Army and sent to the Deputy Theater Judge Advocate, War Crimes Branch, on September 4, 1945. United States Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality; Reference Documents Received from American and Foreign Sources, 1945-1946, NAID: 6106845.
 All the Howe references to Kovalyak and Kress are from Thomas Carr Howe, Jr., Salt Mines and Castles: The Discovery and Restitution of Looted European Art (Indianapolis and New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Publishers, 1946).
 In the OSS ALIU Consolidated Interrogation Report No. 1 regarding the “Activity of the Einstatzstab Rosenberg in France,” there is only brief mention of Kress and his position as a photographer for the ERR. A copy of the report can be found here.
 Kress’ statement on July 25 at Bad Aussee to war crimes investigator Capt. W. A. Rembert is Exhibit 12 to File 3JA187 of the War Crimes Office of the Judge Advocate General of the U.S. Third Army. The report, captioned “Report of Information of Alleged War Crimes,” was prepared by the Office of the Commanding General of the U.S. Third Army and sent to the Deputy Theater Judge Advocate, War Crimes Branch, on September 4, 1945. United States Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality; Reference Documents Received from American and Foreign Sources, 1945-1946 NAID 6106845.
Today’s post, written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, is the next installment in an ongoing series of posts on real-life Monuments Men.
The movie, The Monuments Men, has focused great attention on the Monuments Men (and women) and their work during and after World War II. Of course the movie cannot tell the story of the over 300 individuals involved in Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFA&A) work, so it focuses on three: George Stout, James Rorimer, and Rose Valland, played by George Clooney, Matt Damon, and Cate Blanchett respectively. Beginning in December 2013, Dr. Greg Bradsher and Dr. Sylvia Naylor thought it would be illustrative to discuss some of the lesser known individuals, and thus started a series of blog posts. This blog post on Thomas Carr Howe, Jr. is the sixteenth in this series.
Thomas Carr Howe, Jr., in 1945 while serving as a Lieutenant with the U.S. Navy, was selected to serve as a Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFA&A) officer in the European Theater of Operations (ETO). He had been recommended for such duty by Paul J. Sachs, a member of the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas and professor of fine arts at Harvard University. Howe, born in Kokomo, Indiana on July 23, 1904, was raised in Indianapolis. He studied at Harvard University where he received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in art history, in 1926 and 1929 respectively. While at Harvard he took Sachs’ Museum Work and Museum Problems course. Howe would travel widely and was fluent in French and German and knew some Italian. Howe served as the assistant director of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco from 1931-1939, before becoming director in 1939. He was also the art commissioner for the San Francisco Golden Gate International Exposition (1939-1940) for which he organized an exhibition showcasing Mexican muralists.
In April arrangements were made in ETO to have Howe and naval officer Craig Hugh Smyth, formerly with the National Gallery of Art, to report to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary force (SHAEF) for reassignment to the Armies. In May Howe and Smyth, with orders in hand, flew to Europe.
In mid-May Howe and Smyth reported to Lt. Col. Geoffrey Webb, head of MFA&A Section at SHAEF headquarters in Versailles. Then they went back to London to meet with individuals involved in cultural property matters. Then it was back to Versailles where they met with Webb’s deputy, Lt. Charles L. Kuhn, USNR. They were initially assigned to SHAEF G-5, where they received two weeks of indoctrination before being reassigned.
On May 31 Howe and Smyth flew to Frankfurt and continued on to Bad Homburg by car. At Bad Homburg they reported to European Civil Affairs Division headquarters to await orders. There they telephoned 12th Army Group headquarters in Wiesbaden and talked with Lt. George Stout, USNR, and with Capt. L. Bancel LaFarge, who was in charge of the advance office of MFA&A in Germany. LaFarge arranged for them to be ordered to Wiesbaden to begin operations. At Wiesbaden they first spoke with Stout. Stout undoubtedly told them about his work at the mine full of loot at Alt Aussee, Austria. Third U.S. Army Monuments Men Capt. Robert K. Posey and Pfc Lincoln Kirstein had arrived at the mine on May 16 and found the task of inspecting and evacuating the mine overwhelming. So they called in Stout, who arrived to help them on May 21. After several days of studying the situation at the mine, Stout traveled to Third Army Headquarters to report on the situation and then went to meet with LaFarge. After speaking to Stout, LaFarge told Howe to go to Frankfurt, on temporary duty from SHAEF, as MFA&A Officer, Frankfurt Military Government Detachment. There he would take over MFA&A operations, including finding a building to be used as a collecting point, and told Smyth to go to Munich, to set up a collecting point for cultural property in Bavaria. Smyth’s instructions were that the collecting point was to be ready for the first loads from Austrian repositories in less than two weeks. LaFarge suggested to Howe that he investigate the possibility of requisitioning the Frankfurt university buildings for a depot.
At Frankfurt Howe had buildings at the University requisitioned and got Army engineers to begin repairs to make them usable as the Western Military District’s Collecting Point. Not long after the repairs begun, Col. Leslie W. Jefferson, the head of the U.S. Group Control Council (USGCC)’s Reparation, Deliveries and Restitution (RD&R) Division and Maj. Mason Hammond, the Acting Chief of the MFA&A Branch within the RD&R Division, in mid-June desired for Howe to inspect the Merkers Mine loot at the Reichsbank in Frankfurt that was then scheduled to be transferred to the new collecting point in Frankfurt. In the meantime Kuhn and Webb had moved up to Frankfurt and were established at SHAEF headquarters. Kuhn, acting on the desires of Jefferson and Hammond, asked Howe to meet him at the Reichsbank to look at treasures from Merkers Mine. There he told Howe that he was to take responsibility for them, and was to make an inventory, along with the Property Control Officer Capt, William Dunn. They were to be provided assistance by Capt. Edwin C. Rae and 1st Lt. Edith Standen, both from the MFA&A Branch USGCC.
On the third day of inventorying, Kuhn informed Howe that he was to go on a special mission. He was to fly down to Munich the next morning and would be gone about ten days. There he was to report to Third Army Headquarters and get in touch with Stout as soon as possible. Kuhn informed Howe he could take up the inventorying when he got back, as well as overseeing the repairs to the university buildings.
At Munich Howe went to see Captain Posey, MFA&A officer for the Third U.S. Army, who was not present, but Stout was. Stout explained he had come down from Alt Aussee that day to see Posey about the evacuation of items from Alt Aussee to the Munich Central Collecting Point, but had just missed him. Stout told Howe they were evacuating the mine and were desperately shorthanded. But before Stout could get Howe involved in the Alt Aussee evacuation he had another assignment for him, the monastery at Hohenfurth, in Czechoslovakia, just over the border from Austria. It needed to be evacuated as quickly as possible. But before he could undertake that, Posey wanted him to go to a small village of Grassau on the road to Salzburg where he would find a house in which were stored some eighty cases of paintings and sculpture from the Budapest Museum. Howe would find the house and he brought back eighty-one cases of artworks for storage at the Munich Central Collecting Point.
Howe would then go to the monastery at Hohenfurth. There he found looted cultural property from two fabulous collections, the Rothschild of Vienna and the Mannheimer of Amsterdam. He loaded up as much as he could and had it taken to Munich. Once there he met with Posey about the need for a second trip back to Hohenfurth to complete the evacuation. Posey agreed. He also arranged for 2nd Lt. Lamont Moore (formerly of the National Gallery of Art) to help him. Before taking off, Stout arrived back in Munich from Alt Aussee and told Howe that he was going to talk to Posey about getting him and Moore assigned to Alt Aussee once the Hohenfurth project was completed. Howe returned to Hohenfurth in the first days of July and awaited the arrival of Moore with more trucks. Upon Moore’s arrival the two men packed and loaded the artworks and took them to the Munich Central Collecting Point. Posey then decided that Howe and Moore would go to Alt Aussee to help Stout.
Moore and Howe in July went to Alt Aussee to assist Stout and Lieutenants Stephen Kovalyak and Frederick Shrady with the evacuation of the mine. Among the treasures they packed and loaded for transport were Michelangelo’s Madonna of Bruges and the Ghent altarpiece, also known as The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb. Stout escorted these treasures to Munich, leaving Howe, Moore, Shrady, and Kovalyak to carry on, with Howe in charge.
“Madonna michelangelo”. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons
In late July Howe and Moore wrapped up their activities at Alt Aussee and drove a car back to Munich, carrying the Rothschild jewels with them. During the five weeks of the evacuation of Alt Aussee under Stout and then Howe ninety truckloads of paintings, sculpture, and furniture had been removed from the mine. Although it was by no means empty, the most important treasures had been taken out. At this point Third U.S. Army pulled out of the area.
Back at Munich Posey gave Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak their next assignment – the evacuation of Reichsmarshall, Hermann Goering’s collection at Berchtesgaden. They would spend two weeks there and completed the evacuation of the entire Goering collection, which included, among other things, art work, sculpture, and furniture. In all they had sent thirty-one truckloads to Munich, finishing the assignment in early August.
The next major assignment for Howe and his team was the evacuation of the records of the Nazi art looting organization, the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) from Neuschwanstein Castle, some 80 miles south of Munich. The castle had been used by the ERR during the war as a storage location for its loot and records. The job would also entail the removal of part of the stolen art treasures. The French were anxious to get everything back from Neuschwanstein, but for the present they would have to be content with the gold and the silver objects and as many of the smaller cases as the Americans could handle. Later, it would be more practicable to ship the larger things (furniture, sculpture and pictures) directly to France by rail. The ERR records, Posey told Howe, were badly needed at the Munich Central Collecting Point in connection with the identification of the plunder stored there. So they were told to concentrate on them and on the objects of great intrinsic value. It would take time to get the trucks, so Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak went off to Frankfurt to see about the three of them being recognized as a Special Evacuation Team. Howe wrote “That’s what we were in fact, but we wanted to be recognized as such in name.” They called on Maj. LaFarge (who became Chief of the MFA&A Section when SHAEF dissolved in mid-July) and Lt. Cmdr. Kuhn, at United States Forces European Theater (USFET) headquarters, who agreed to them being a three-person team, working out of USFET. Because of the continued problems getting trucks for the evacuation they went to Marburg to visit Captain Walker Hancock’s collecting point operation.
Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak, after their visits to Frankfurt and Marburg, in mid-August returned to Munich where they were informed that six trucks were now available. Then it was off to Neuschwanstein. Their base of operations for the partial evacuation of Neuschwanstein was Fussen, where there was a small Military Government Detachment. From there, it was more than a mile up the side of a mountain to the castle. When they got to the castle, the wing in which the ERR items were stored was locked and sealed by Capt. James J. Rorimer, when he had visited the castle in early May. They had brought the key with them from Third Army Headquarters. They eventually located the ERR offices. They were crowded with bookshelves and filing cabinets. They also located two rooms which had been used as a photographic laboratory. The Neuschwanstein operation lasted eight days during the latter part of August. They worked nights as well because there were thousands of small objects (many of them fragile and extremely valuable) which they could not trust to the inexpert hands of their day-time work party. There was no electricity in the small storage rooms, so they had to work by candle-light. They packed the 2,000 pieces of gold and silver in the David-Weill collection from Paris. They also packed up the ERR records for transport to Munich. The records included over 20,000 catalogue cards, each representing a confiscated work or group of works, 8,000 negatives, and files of documents. Before leaving the area they visited the house in Gipsmuehl (a small village below the castle) where German art dealer Gustav Rochlitz was staying and took 22 paintings from him. “They were,” Howe wrote, “without exception, works of excellent quality. One large early Picasso…was alone worth a small fortune.”
Photograph of the ERR File Cabinets
When Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak got back to Munich from Neuschwanstein at the end of August, they were told by Smyth that preparations were being made for the immediate restitution of several important masterpieces recovered in the American Zone. General Dwight D. Eisenhower had approved a proposal to return at once to each of the countries overrun by the Germans at least one outstanding work of art. This was to be done in his name, as a gesture of “token restitution,” symbolizing the policy with regard to ultimate restitution of all stolen art treasure to the rightful owner nations. They would be sent back from Germany at the expense of the U.S. Government. Belgium was to receive the first token restitution-the great van Eyck altarpiece-The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb. Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak supervised the loading from the Munich Central Collecting Point and it was flown to Brussels on August 21 accompanied by Posey. The next day the altarpiece was delivered to the Royal Palace, where the Belgians signed a receipt. On September 3 an official ceremony took place at the Palace. It was attended by Maj. LaFarge, Lt. Col. Mason Hammond, Chief of MFA&A Branch USGCC and his deputy, Capt. Calvin Hathaway.
Shortly after the return of the Ghent altarpiece, Posey was demobilized. His duties as MFA&A Officer at Third Army Headquarters in Munich were assumed by Captain Edwin Rae. During the early days of Rae’s regime Kuhn paid a brief visit to Munich. He had just completed the transfer of the Berlin Museum collections (recovered at Merkers Mine) from Frankfurt to the Landesmuseum in Wiesbaden, which became the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point. The university buildings in Frankfurt, which Howe had requisitioned for a Collecting Point, had proved unsuitable. Kuhn was headed for Vienna to confer with Lt. Col. Ernest Dewald, Chief of the MFA&A Section at United States Forces, Austria (USFA) Headquarters (formerly professor of art history at Princeton University) regarding the evacuation of the mine at Alt Aussee. In early September USFA had requested USGCC’s agreement to proposal that art objects (non Austrian) still located at Alt Aussee be removed by USFA to the Munich Central Collecting Point beginning immediately. On September 12 USGCC approved the request and four days later USFET notified Third U.S. Army of the approval.
Dewald wanted to complete the evacuation of the mine at Alt Aussee which was then under his jurisdiction. For this project he hoped to obtain the services of Howe and the Special Evacuation Team of the Third Army. Rae was reluctant to lend Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak because there was still so much work to be done in Bavaria. But he agreed, provided Kuhn could sell the idea to the Third Army Chief of Staff. Kuhn did so and departed, taking Kovalyak with him who wanted to see Vienna.
After they left, Rae requested Howe and Moore to make an inspection trip of cultural property collections in northern Bavaria. They went to Bamberg, Coburg, and Schloss Tambach. When they returned to Munich, Kovalyak was back from Vienna. He reported that Kuhn had already left for Frankfurt and Dewald was coming to Munich to talk about reopening the Alt Aussee mine operation. He said that either Kuhn or LaFarge would come down from USFET Headquarters when Dewald arrived. Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak then met with Rae. He had a new assignment for them. He had just received orders from USFET Headquarters to prepare the Cracow altarpiece for shipment. It was to be sent back to Poland as a token restitution. This was the colossal carved altarpiece by Veit Stoss which the Nazis had stolen from the Church of St. Mary at Cracow and moved to Nuremberg.
“Krakow oltarz Stwosza” by Pko – Own work (own photo). Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons
On Rae’s instructions, Howe and Kovalyak went to Nuremberg to pack the altarpiece. Moore had remained in Munich to make tentative arrangements for trucks, once Howe informed him how many they would need. At Nuremberg Howe and Kovalyak began packing the altarpiece for transport. The project collapsed when Howe was called back to Munich. LaFarge was arriving from Frankfurt and wanted to see him. Plans for the trip to Cracow were indefinitely postponed. Internal conditions in Poland were too unsettled to risk returning the altarpiece. So Howe and Kovalyak returned to Munich.
They met with Lafarge who informed them that Moore, Kovalyak and a third officer, new to MFA&A work, were to resume the evacuation of the salt mine at Alt Aussee. Howe was to return to USFET Headquarters at Frankfurt as Deputy Chief of the MFA&A Section, replacing Kuhn, who had just received his orders to go home.
About this time, before Moore and Kovalyak left for Alt Aussee, there was another important shipment to be made to Belgium. It was to include the Michelangelo Madonna, the eleven paintings stolen from the church in Bruges when the statue was taken, and the four panels by Dirk Bouts from the famous altarpiece in the church of St. Pierre at Louvain. This shipment to Belgium was the first restitution where the recipient nation came to Munich to collect its property. Howe, Moore, and Kovalyak helped the Belgians pack and load the items into a truck on September 22.
Howe left Munich at the end of September. At the same time Moore and Kovalyak were planning to depart for Alt Aussee. Howe reported to LaFarge upon arrival at Frankfurt. He was informed that with the removal to Berlin of the Monuments officers attached to the USGCC, their office, which included Standen, at USFET Headquarters in Frankfurt, would be moved to Hoechst (about a twenty minute drive from Frankfurt). That was because the Restitution Control Branch of the Economics Division, of which they were part, was located there.
The first task for Howe was a token restitution to the Netherlands. At the end of September General Eisenhower had directed the preparation, as soon as possible, of an air delivery to the Netherlands, of approximately 25 looted Dutch works of art of highest quality. LaFarge told Howe about the token restitution and that the Dutch were then selecting items and that United States would provide a plan to fly them to Amsterdam. He wanted Howe to be present for the transfer. Howe departed for Amsterdam the second week of October to arrange for the transfer. On October 10, Howe was present for the return of the 27 paintings (by seventeenth century Dutch masters, including Rembrandt) that were liberated by Third US Army from Hitler and Goering Collections. On October 19 the second load for the Netherlands left Munich, transported in Dutch trucks.
Meanwhile Moore and Kovalyak in early October went to Austria to assist in the further evacuation of looted works of art from the mine at Alt Aussee. The evacuation began again on October 9 and between that date and November 3, 86 truckloads of items were delivered to the Munich Central Collecting Point. The collecting point reported at the end of October that it had received a total of 8,438 cases or uncrated items from Alt Aussee (including the 3,691 cases or uncrated items received previously) and during November had received 220 more, making for a grand total of 8,658 cases or uncrated items.
Before the end of October, a token restitution was made to Czechoslovakia. The objects chosen were the famous fourteenth century Hohenfurth altarpiece and the collection of the Army Museum at Prague. Both had been stolen by the Nazis. The altarpiece, evacuated from Alt Aussee mine, was then at the Munich Central Collecting Point. The Army Museum collections were stored at Schloss Banz, near Bamberg. Howe, now promoted to Lieutenant Commander, arranged for the Czech representatives to proceed to Schloss Banz, where they were met by Lieutenant Walter Horn. While the Czech officers were en route, Captain Rae at Third Army was directed to arrange for the delivery of the Hohenfurth panels to Schloss Banz. This operation was carried out successfully.
Also before the end of October, Howe became involved again the problem of the Veit Stoss altarpiece. Major Charles Estreicher, the Polish representative, spent several days at the office at Hoechst studying their files for additional data on Polish loot in the American zone before continuing to Munich and Nuremberg. The actual return of the altarpiece to Poland was delayed until April 1946, when the altarpiece and other Polish property were returned to Poland, accompanied by Monuments Men Capt. Everett Parker Lesley, Jr. and 1st Lt. Julianna Bumbar.
During late October Howe became involved in the controversial issue of sending German-owned art work to the United States for safe-keeping, a proposal that had been approved by authorities in Washington, D.C. At that time LaFarge met at the USFET Headquarters in Frankfurt with the Chief of Staff to Maj. Gen. C. L. Adcock, Deputy Director of the Office of Military Government (U.S.) on the subject of the proposed removal of German-owned works of art to the United States. LaFarge impressed upon the colonel practical difficulties involved and stressed the technical, not the moral objections to shipping valuable works of art to America. As a result of this conference the Chief of Staff asked LaFarge to prepare a memorandum on the issue for Adcock. Howe and Standen assisted him in preparing it. The memorandum contained a plea for the importation MFA&A personnel to assume responsibility for the project and called attention to acute shortages in packing materials and transportation facilities. The memorandum also pointed out that the advisability of moving fragile objects across the ocean would need to be balanced against the advantages of leaving them in the Central Collecting Points. Nothing came of their memorandum.
Within two weeks, Colonel Harry A. McBride, administrator of the National Gallery of Art, arrived in Berlin to expedite the shipment. He flew down to Frankfurt two days later to discuss ways and means with LaFarge. LaFarge told him that the Monuments Men were strongly opposed to the project. McBride was adamant that the project would be carried out, with or without them.
The Monuments Men on November 7 sent a memorandum to LaFarge listing their objections to the project. This document, now known as the Wiesbaden Manifesto, was drafted and signed by 24 of the 32 Monuments officers in the American Zone at the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point. The remaining eight chose either to submit individual letters expressing their objections, or orally to express like sentiments.
Preparations for the shipment took precedence over all other activities of the MFA&A office during the next three weeks. It was decided to ship some 200 artworks to the United States and take them from one collecting point, Wiesbaden. It was decided that Lamont Moore would be placed in charge of the operation. He and Kovalyak had just completed the evacuation of the mine at Alt Aussee and had returned to Munich. McBride, a friend from their days at the National Gallery of Art, was content to leave everything in Moore’s hands. When Moore got to Frankfurt, he and Howe spent time studying a listing of the paintings stored at Wiesbaden. Then Moore typed out a tentative selection. The next day he and McBride went to the Collecting Point for a preliminary inspection, and not soon thereafter 202 paintings were shipped to the United States, accompanied by Moore.
In December 1945, when LaFarge went to the United States, Howe served as the acting chief of the MFA&A Section of the Restitution Control Branch of the Economics Division. He did not serve in this capacity long. In February Howe returned home and resumed his position as director at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor. He recorded the story of his European experience in Salt Mines and Castles: The Discovery and Restitution of Looted European Art. For his wartime service as a Monuments Man, Howe was honored with the Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor and the Officer of the Dutch Order of Orange-Nassau.
Howe later served as the Cultural Affairs Advisor with the Office of the High Commissioner of Germany during 1950-1951, during which time he returned to Germany with former Monuments Man S. Lane Faison, to assist with closing the central collecting points where the recovered artworks had been held for restitution. From 1960-1968, Howe was a member of the Fine Arts Committee for The White House and he continued to serve on numerous panels and commissions as an art advisor. He retired from the Legion of Honor Museum in 1968, and passed away in 1994 at the age of 89.
- Perhaps the most useful source for this blog was Thomas Carr Howe, Jr., Salt Mines and Castles: The Discovery and Restitution of Looted European Art (Indianapolis and New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Publishers, 1946)
- Among the holdings of the National Archives I used were:
- General Subject File Aug 1943-1945, Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section, Operations Branch, G-5 Division, General Staff, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF), Allied Operational and Occupation Headquarters, World War II, Record Group 331
- Numeric File Aug 1943-Jul 1945, Secretariat, G-5 Division, General Staff, RG 331
- Numeric-Subject Operations File 1943-July 1945, RG 331 (NAID 611522)
- Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Branch (MFAA) Field Reports, 1943-1946, RG 239 (Roll 72 of NARA Microfilm Publication M-1944) (NAID 1537270)
- General Records of the Section Chief, 1945-1949, RG 260 (Roll 1 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1949) (NAID 1571282)
- Activity Reports, 1945-1951, Records of the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, RG 260 (Roll 54 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1947) (NAID 2435804)
- File: 312.1 Miscellaneous Correspondence, Central Files, 1944-1949, RG 260 (NAID 6923852)
- File: 007 – 1 Fine Arts and Cultural Objects Folder #1, Jan 1946-April 1946 (NAID 7193794), Central Files, 1944-1949, RG 260
- File: 007 1945 (NAID 7248132), General Correspondence, 1945-1946, RG 260
- File: AG 007 Fine Arts, Archives and Museums USGCC 1944-45, General Correspondence, 1944-1945 (NAID 6923844), RG 260
- General Records, 1946-1948, “Ardelia Hall Collection”, RG 260 (Roll 13, 16 and 21 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941) (NAID 1560051)
- Activity Reports, 1945, “Ardelia Hall Collection”, RG 260 (Roll 32 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1941) (NAID 1561462)