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Today’s post was written by David Pfeiffer, Reference Archivist at the National Archives in College Park.

On a gorgeous late summer day in August, RDT2 archivists Joe Schwarz and David Pfeiffer traveled to Shenandoah National Park headquarters near Luray, Virginia, to examine some potentially alienated records at the request of NARA’s Office of the Inspector General (OIG).  Our objective was to appraise what turned out to be the office files of Matthias (Matt) Charles Huppuch, a National Park Service Deputy Assistant Director.  The records in question measured one linear foot (two archives boxes) that was offered as a donation by his son, Charles Huppuch.

An examination of the records resulted in the decision that the records contain essential evidence relating to the actions of a Federal official, are historically valuable and warrant continued preservation by the National Archives.  Records of this type are included in the holdings of the National Archives among the records of the National Park Service (Record Group 79).  The records consist of office files from the late 1930’s and were created and accumulated during the daily activities of the Branch of Recreation, Land Planning and State Cooperation of the NPS.  Additionally, there were records of the Recreational Demonstration Areas including the Civilian Conservation Corps.  In particular, there was a large map showing the Recreational Demonstration Areas in the U.S.  Finally, we found several large organizational charts for the branch in the 1930’s. Consequently, we recommended approval of the donation.  After taking ownership of the records on behalf of the National Archives, we brought the records back with us for assimilation into their rightful home in RG 79.  So, we saved some records from the “dustbin” of history. There is something gratifying in this process!!

During our visit, we had a pleasant conversation with the donor concerning the lifecycle  of the records.  The records were apparently found in his father’s house after his death.  Mr. Huppuch then proposed to donate them to the Shenandoah National Park archives.  The archivist there determined that the records more properly belonged to the National Archives and contacted the OIG.  Afterwards, we had a short tour of the archives and were shown many photographs of the park, particularly those taken at the dedication of the park by Franklin D. Roosevelt on July 3, 1936.

            After visiting the park headquarters, we drove back via the Skyline Drive to Front Royal.  Joe had never been on the drive and really enjoyed the views of the Shenandoah Valley.  And as the NPS records specialist, it was a “fact finding” drive.  It was a long day but we had a blast on our “excellent” adventure.



Today’s post was written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives in College Park.

Recently I went to look in the stacks in the National Archives at College Park, MD for some information in the records of the Army’s Adjutant General (Record Group 407) about the relationship between the War Department’s Military Intelligence Division (MID) and the National Intelligence Authority’s Central Intelligence Group (CIG). Specifically, I was hoping to find something in the Classified Decimal Files (1946-1947), under the War Department Decimal File System’s Decimals 020 and 040. The former decimal is for War Department Administration and Functions, subdivided alphabetically by name or title of department or bureau, and the latter decimal is for Executive Departments of the United States Government, subdivided alphabetically by name or title of bureau, department, division, commission, or board.

While I did not find anything that was useful to me regarding the MID-CIG relationship, I did, unexpectedly, find in a folder labeled “AG 040 National Intelligence Authority (1946-1947)” an original copy of President Harry S. Truman’s January 22, 1946 directive, establishing the National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group.

 

Directive establishing National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group

Directive establishing National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group

Directive establishing National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group

Directive establishing the National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group

File AG 040 National Intelligence Authority (1946-1947), Classified Decimal File, 1946-1947, (Entry 360) Records of the Adjutant General, 1917-, Record Group 407.

 

I thought it would be interesting to see what was in the State Department records regarding the directive. I checked online at NARA’s website for agency file manuals and determined that in the State Department Decimal File for 1945-1949 (General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59) I needed to look under decimal 101 “The White House (the President’s Office)”. In a file folder for decimal 101.5 I found a letter from the President to the Secretary of State, dated January 23, 1946, notifying him of the appointment of Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy as the President’s personal representative on the National Intelligence Authority and the appointment of Rear Admiral Sidney W. Souers to serve as the Director of Central Intelligence.

 

Appointment of Adm. Leahy to NIA and R-Adm Souers to CIG

Decimal 101.5/1-2346, Decimal File, 1945-1949 (NAID 302021), General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59.

In the same folder was a communication from the Office of The Legal Adviser to the Division of Management Planning, dated January 30, 1946, regarding the question of whether the President’s directive should be published in the Federal Register.

Establishing of National Intelligence Authority and Central Intelligence Group

Decimal 101.5/1-3046, Decimal File, 1945-1949 (NAID 302021), General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59

Establishing of National Intelligence Authority and Central Intelligence Group

Decimal 101.5/1-3046, Decimal File, 1945-1949, General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59.

 

Once it was decided to publish the presidential directive, the Department of State prepared the appropriate documentation, dated February 1, 1946, to be provided to the Federal Register. The directive was then published in the Federal Register of February 5, 1946 (11 Fed. Reg. 1337, 1339).

 

Establishing the National Intelligence Authority and the Central Intelligence Group

Decimal 101.5/1-2246, Decimal File, 1945-1949, General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59.

 

Useful for understanding President Truman’s directive, its background and implementation, please see Thomas F. Troy’s study “Truman on CIA: Examining President Truman’s Role in the Establishment of the Agency.” and the volume Foreign Relations of the United States, 1945-1950, Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment.



Today’s post was written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives in College Park.

An excellent source for answering the questions posed in the title of this post, and other military questions, is the records of the Office of the Adjutant General (Record Group 407). Specifically, to answer the official designation question, I went to Files AG 000.4 Naming of Wars (1 Aug 45) and AG 055 World War II 3-1-45 — 12-31-45 within Entry 363A Army AG Decimal File 1940-1945 [NAID 895294]. Below is the information I located that answered the questions posed.

During the summer of 1945 the War Department determined that it needed to expeditiously come up with an official name for the war the United States was fighting at the time. The Operations Division of the War Department was tasked with making a recommendation regarding a name designation for the war. After undertaking some research and consulting with other elements of the War Department, Brigadier General Thomas North, Chief, Current Group, writing for the Acting Assistant Chief of Staff, Operations Division, War Department, on August 1, 1945, wrote to the commanding generals of the Army Service Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Air Force, regarding the “Official Designation of Present War.” He mentioned that in official documents, Acts of Congress, publications and in current usage various names and designations had been applied to hostilities which began December 7, 1941. He pointed out that in communications and records of various committees of the Congress, reference had been made to “‘the wars in which the United States is presently engaged.’” He noted:

By letter dated 31 July 1919, President Wilson recommended that the war against the Central Powers be named ‘The World War.’ By General Orders No. 115, dated 7 October 1919, War Department directed: ‘The war against the Central Powers of Europe, in which the United States has taken part, will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘The World War.’

General North suggested that as a matter of simplicity, and to ensure uniform terminology, it was desirable to have an officially designated name for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities. He observed that the Bureau of Public Relations, after analysis of records of publications and radio usage, stated that the term “World War II” had been accepted by common usage. He added that the term “World War II” to designate the present hostilities had been used in at least seven public laws. Therefore, the Operations Division recommended that the term “World War II” be announced in General Orders to designate the war in which United States forces had participated since December 7, 1941. He requested the recipients’ comments. All three recipients concurred with the term World War II.

After obtaining the concurrences of Army Service Forces, the Army Ground Forces, and the Army Air Force, the Current Group, Operations Division, War Department, on August 19 wrote the War Department’s G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 for their concurrence. They concurred, with G-1, suggesting the proposal should be coordinated with the Navy Department and G-2 suggesting that the matter be presented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the president as a recommendation that he officially announce the designation as “World War II.” Then more concurrences were sought regarding the G-1 and G-2 suggestions.

Finally, on August 31, the Assistant Chief of Staff, Operations Division, War Department, wrote the Army Chief of Staff and the Secretary of War, asking for the approval of the former and the signature of the latter to enclosed draft letters to the Secretary of the Navy and a joint letter to the President. In this communication Lt. Gen. J. E. Hull, provided the basic background as had been written by General North on August 1. Henry L. Stimson, the Secretary of War, wrote the Secretary of the Navy on September 5 with background information regarding the term World War II and the desire for its official recognition by the President. Stimson enclosed a letter which he had prepared for their signatures addressed to the President recommending that the term “World War II” be the officially designated for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities, with the further recommendation that the title “World War II” be published in the Federal Register as the official name of the present war. Stimson indicated to Secretary Forrestal that he had already signed the enclosed letter and recommended that if he concurred, the joint letter be sent to the President for approval.

A little over a week later, on September 10, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal wrote President Truman:

President Wilson, under date of July 31, 1919, addressed a letter to Secretary of War Baker which read, in part, as follows:

It is hard to find a satisfactory ‘official’ name for the war, but the best, I think, that has been suggested is ‘The World War’, and I hope that your judgment will concur.

Subsequently, under date of October 7, 1919, War Department General orders No. 115 directed:

The war against the Central Powers of Europe, in which the United States has taken part, will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘The World War.’

As a matter of simplicity and to insure uniform terminology, it is recommended that ‘World War II’ be the officially designated name for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities.

The term ‘World War II’ has been used in at least seven public laws to designate this period of hostilities. Analysis of publications and radio programs indicates that this term has been accepted by common usage.

If this recommended is approved it is further recommended that the title ‘World War II’ be published in the Federal Register as the official name of the present war.

At the bottom on this communication, President Truman, signed Approved, Sept. 11, 1945, Harry Truman.

Three days later, on September 14, Brig. Gen. Thomas North, Chief, Current Group, Operations Division of the War Department wrote The Adjutant General that the Secretary of War directed “that information substantially as follows be published in a War Department General Order:

Official Designation of the Present War

The war in which the United States has been engaged since 8 December 1941 will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘World War II.’”

General North added that the Secretary of War directed that a letter “substantially as follows be forwarded to Mr. B. R. Kennedy, Director, Division of the Federal Register, National Archives, Washington, 25, D.C. (Attention: Mr. Eberhart):

The President on 11 September 1945 approved the enclosed letter of 10 September 1945 signed jointly by the Secretaries of War and the navy recommending that the term ‘World War II’ be officially designated as the name for the present war covering all theaters and the entire period of hostilities. Further, it was recommended that the title ‘World War II’ be published in the Federal Register as the official name of the present war.

It is requested that the Director, Division of the Federal Register, comply with the latter recommendation and advise the Adjutant General when the action is accomplished.

General North enclosed the original letter signed by the Secretaries of War and the Navy and approved by the President, together with three certified copies, and asked they be forwarded as enclosures to the communication to the Division of the Federal Register.

As instructed, Maj. Gen. Edward F. Witsell, Acting the Adjutant General, wrote the Director, Division of the Federal Register on September 17 with the request for publication, enclosing the letter cited above. It was published (see 10 Federal Register 1188).

Paragraph No. I of War Department General Orders No. 80, dated September 19, 1945, provided “The war in which the United States has been engaged since 8 December 1941 will hereafter be designated in all official communications and publications as ‘World War II.’”

 



Today’s post was written by Dr. Greg Bradsher, Senior Archivist at the National Archives in College Park.

In looking at some boxes of the Reference Collection of the Departmental Records Branch of the Army’s Office of the Adjutant General (Record Group 407), I stumbled upon two boxes labeled “Protection of Monuments.”  They carried the designation “Document No. 231” and contained lists, prepared in 1943 by the American Defense, Harvard Group, of cultural monuments in various countries.  The contents of the two boxes did not seem to contain a complete set of these mimeographed publications.  I knew that within the Records of The American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas (Record Group 239, the so-called Roberts Commission) were more of these listings, perhaps a complete set.[1]  I was curious as to whether the set in the records of the Roberts Commission was indeed complete and if not, could one find a missing list in the two boxes of Adjutant General’s records.  As the first step I knew that I needed to find a listing of the complete set.  This I found online via the Harvard University Archives’ holdings of the records of the American Defense, Harvard Group.

Before discussing my quest to ascertain what the National Archives and Records Administration held vis a vis the Harvard University Archives, it might be useful for the reader to know something about the American Defense, Harvard Group, and its Committee on the Protection of Monuments.

The American Defense, Harvard Group was an independent organization organized in June 1940 by a small group of Harvard faculty members to alert Americans to the dangers posed by the Axis powers after the fall of France. Initially launched to aid America’s allies in Europe and Asia and prepare America for eventual participation in the conflict, the Group helped mobilize support for America’s war effort after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. After America’s entry into the war the Group cooperated in various national defense activities.

The Group sought support from Harvard faculty, administration, clerical staff, wives, and Cambridge residents. Eventually, its membership reached more than 1700 names, with an active roster of 240 volunteers.  Harvard professor of philosophy Ralph Barton Perry served as President of the Group and Paul J. Sachs (director of Harvard University’s Fogg Museum) as Chairman.  Also playing key role in the Group were W. G. Constable (curator of painting at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts) and Hugh O’Neill Hencken (Associate in European Archaeology at Harvard University and Assistant Curator of European Archaeology at the Peabody Museum).

An important activity of the Group was the work of its Committee on the Protection of Monuments.  The chief work of this committee was carried out by a subcommittee appointed on March 20, 1943, consisting of Sachs, Constable, and Hencken. They began to work in response to the request of March 10 from Lt. Col. James H. Shoemaker of the Military Government Division of the Office of the Provost Marshal General that there be assembled information on objects and monuments which might need protection in possible theaters of war or occupied territories. Hencken was released by the Peabody Museum to act as general organizer of the project, and all the clerical work was performed by the Group, much by volunteers. Appeals were at once made to a wide circle of sixty-one in number, who had special knowledge of the various countries concerned.

In less than three months the first lists of cultural monuments were being sent to Washington, D.C., the one for Sicily being dispatched on June 12, nearly three weeks before the invasion of that island.  The Directive for the Sicilian invasion (Operation Husky) provided that “So far as consistent with military necessity all efforts will be made to preserve local archives, historical and classical monuments and objects of art.”[2]  Force 141 (afterwards 15th Army Group) sent a cable to the War Department on June 27, asking it to obtain and send immediately by fast air mail material on public monuments in Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia.  The material was prepared by Lt. Col. Shoemaker. It included an introduction dealing with the cultural monuments protection problems in general and lists of principal monuments of art to be found in Sicily and Sardinia. It was forwarded to Force 141 on July 1 and received on July 2.[3]

The committee produced two types of lists in mimeographed form, for each country.  The longer lists were prefaced by an introduction outlining the significance of the material in the national and religious sentiment of the country in question, and a short historical outline. Each list was prepared by individuals or groups with special knowledge of the countries concerned, and included material not to be found in guidebooks. Throughout, special care was taken to include material which for any reason was treasured or revered by the local population, quite apart from any general historical or artistic interest.  In addition, shorter lists were prepared for most countries, which were based on the longer lists, but included only monuments of outstanding importance. These were primarily designed for incorporation in manuals prepared by the War Department dealing with all aspects of military government.

Below is a listing of countries and indication whether they had only a long list or both a long list and short list prepared for it:

Albania, long and short lists

Austria, long and short lists

Belgium and Luxembourg, long and short lists

Bulgaria, long and short lists

Czechoslovakia, long and short lists

Denmark, long and short lists

France, long and short lists

Central France, long list,

Northern France, long list

South France, long list

Germany, long and short lists

Germany, Western, long list

Germany, North-Eastern, long list

Germany, North-Western, long list

Germany, South, long list

Greece, long and short lists

Holland, long and short lists

Hungary, long and short lists

Italy, introduction, long and short lists

Italy, Central, long list

Italy, North, long list

Italy, Northeast, long list

Italy, Northwest, long list

Italy, South, long list

Italy, Sardinia and Sicily, long list,

Norway, long and short lists

Rumania, long and short lists

Tunisia, long and short lists

Jugoslavia [Yugoslavia], long and short lists

China, long list

Indo-China, long list

Japan, long list

Korea, long list

Netherlands East Indies, long and short lists

Siam, Thailand, long list

The lists for China, Japan, Korea, and Siam were prepared by Langdon Warner, archaeologist and art historian specializing in East Asian art. He was a professor at Harvard and the Curator of Oriental Art at Harvard University’s Fogg Museum.

As it turns out the Roberts Commission records contain copies of all of the short lists and copies of all of the long lists, except for that of the Netherlands East Indies.  A copy of that list can be found in the Reference Collection of the Departmental Records Branch of the Army’s Office of the Adjutant General (Record Group 407), under the file designation “Document No. 231.”

In 1943, the Group also prepared a two-part manual entitled “Notes on Safeguarding and Conserving Cultural Materials in the Field.”  Part I was authored by W. G. Constable and George L. Stout (head of the Fogg Museum’s conservation since 1933).  Part I related to the application of the principles of “first aid” to cultural material.  Stout, from the Fogg Museum, in 1944, as a Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives officer, would be putting into practice what he had written.   Part II was edited by Constable and contained information supplied by Prentice Duell, Murray Pease , Evelyn Ehrlich, William J. Young, Walter Hauser, Stephen V. Grancsay, Jean Reed, Robert C. Murphy, Hugh Hencken, and Frederick Preston Orchard.[4]  Parts I and II of the publication can be viewed here.


[1] The lists are part of the series Handbooks and Lists of Monuments, 1943–1945 (NAID 1537349), RG 239, and reproduced on rolls 95-99 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1944 and available online at www.fold3.com.

[2] Extract from Directive for Husky-Paraphrase, Tab A to Memorandum, Maj. Gen. J. H. Hilldring, Chief, Civil Affairs Division to Assistant Secretary of War, Subject: Protection of Historic Monuments, July 21, 1943, File: CAD 000.4 (3-25-43) (1), Security Classified General Correspondence, 1943-July 1949 (NAID 3376702), RG 165.

[3] Summary of preliminary material forwarded 1 July, Tab C to Memorandum, Maj. Gen. J. H. Hilldring, Chief, Civil Affairs Division to Assistant Secretary of War, Subject: Protection of Historic Monuments, July 21, 1943, File: CAD 000.4 (3-25-43) (1), Security Classified General Correspondence, 1943-July 1949 (NAID 3376702); Cable from Chief of Staff, July 2, Extracts from Cables-In Paraphrase, Tab B, ibid.

[4] Notes on Safeguarding and Conserving Cultural Materials in the Field, 1943 (NAID 1537348), RG 239, and reproduced on roll 95 of National Archives Microfilm Publication M-1944 and available on Fold3.



Today’s post was written by Dr. Tina Ligon, Archivist at the National Archives at College Park, MD.

This summer, the National Archives at College Park brought in nine interns from across the country to learn about the archival profession. The interns had the opportunity to assist in customer service and with several current processing projects, under the guidance of archivists and an archives specialist. Below are brief descriptions of the interns’ experiences at the National Archives.

2014 summer interns-res

L to R: Summer Interns Benjamin, Delaney, Peyton, Delany, Archivist Tina Ligon, Interns Conor, Chris, Mary and Mark (Damon Turner not pictured)

 

Peyton Brown (Mary Washington University)

Project: Registered Product Labels Processing Project

“As an intern this summer at the National Archives II in College Park, Maryland, I worked with patents for labels dating from 1874 to 1940. My job was to take the information from the patents and put it into a computer system [Holding Maintenance and Sofa System] to make it available online. I scanned particularly important patents so that their images will be available online as well. Throughout my internship, the archivists I was privileged to meet at NARA have been extremely helpful in instructing me and answering all of my questions regarding a career in the archival field. My experience here at the National Archives has been truly valuable because of the knowledge and experience I have gained.”

Chris Carter (University of Maryland, College Park)

Project: 2014 Description Project

“Before starting work in January, my experience was in smaller archives without the large quantities of records found here at the National Archives. I knew describing the records here in College Park would be like nothing I had done before, and so I was eager to learn what I could from my co-workers here at the National Archives. Along the way, I provided accession-level description for the records of the United States Army, Pacific; the Department of Education; and the Forest Service. I described these records for the benefit of researchers. I also learned how to look through the folder titles for ARC [Archival Research Catalog]-compliant titles and through the contents of the folders for creating organizations, not always an easy task. While browsing these records, I learned the intricacies of FOIA and how it affects user access of the records. I continue to look forward to learning more here at the National Archives in College Park.”

Delaney Cruickshank (College of Charleston)

Project: Reference and Customer Service

“Working for the National Archives has been a wonderful experience. Everyone has been so friendly, and I’m learning a lot about the archival process. I love the fact that I can work directly with not just the researchers, but the records themselves. Thanks to this internship, I am considering becoming an Archivist after I graduate college.”

Delaney Cummings (Coe College)

Project: RG 64 Records of the National Archives Processing Project

“I loved my experience as an intern at the Archives. This internship has allowed me to work alongside extremely talented Archivists who take interest in interns and have helped provide me with various opportunities to learn this summer. As an intern, I am working within one specific department which gives me an in depth understanding of the work done. Yet, included with that I am given the opportunity to tour different labs within Archives II, as well as tour Archives I. This gives me not only a further understanding of the different types of careers archivists can have, but also shows me how what I do plays a role at the Archives as a whole. I could not ask for a better, more welcoming agency to intern with this summer. The knowledge I am gaining will be immensely valuable for my future career.”

Mary Kendig (University of Maryland, College Park)

Project: Reference and Customer Service

“My exciting internship at the National Archives truly affected my college experience. It enabled me to work with military records and implement the information I learned in my college history courses. Due to my experience, I plan to enter the archival career. Originally, I thought I would become a high school history teacher or I would work at a museum. After working at NARA, I know without a doubt that I will go straight into graduate school to earn a master in library science. One day, I hope to return to NARA as a professional employee. I would recommend the National Archives to every student as an internship program. Even if one is not interested in the military, general history, or civilian records; there are other administrative opportunities at the archives, including human resources, accounting, and business administration. The atmosphere is ideal for beginning and advanced interns because all the employees are pleasant and well qualified. Regardless of the atmosphere and the experience, working at NARA is just plain fun. It’s rare to find a college internship that’s enjoyable and truly engages your educational goals; the National Archives fits both criteria.”

Mark A. Proctor (Stevenson University)

Project: “Subject Files, August 1943-1945″ of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force Digitization Project

“My experience at the National Archives was great. I got to work with actual records, get a behind- the-scenes look at what goes on at NARA, and learn about the many different ways in which NARA handles and deals with all types of records. While shadowing in the research room, I got to see firsthand the relationship NARA has with researchers, students, and professors who come in to find information for a paper or book they are writing. While interning, there was no shortage of work, and I was never bored. There was always something else productive to do. Everyone in my office was extremely nice, helpful, and welcoming when I first got here and this continued throughout my entire internship. This made me feel like I was a part of the team and not just some “intern,” which made this internship an experience to remember.”

Conor Snow (Goucher College)

Project: Reference and Customer Service

“I worked in the Textual Reference Department at the National Archives in College Park. I worked both behind the scenes and with the public, which provided me with a wonderful balance of working on my own and with researchers. Whilst in the research room, which could get very busy, I pretty much pointed researchers to the records that they needed. This can be a very difficult process for researchers of all experience levels, and it was my job to help them out. I got the opportunity to meet so many awesome people while working in the research room and learn from them as well. When I was not in the research room, I spent my time in my time responding to researchers’ letters from around the world. I absolutely loved my time spent as an intern at Archives II. It was truly an incredible opportunity to work with great staff, leaders and gain first-hand experience of life at the National Archives.”

We would like to extend our thanks and appreciation to all of the interns and the hard work they accomplished and wish them all the best in their future endeavors.

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