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Today’s post is written by Alan Walker, a processing archivist at Archives II in College Park.
Lt. General John L. DeWitt was in charge of the U.S. Army’s Western Defense Command in 1942 and was instrumental in the development of Executive Order 9066, which directed the internment of all Japanese Americans living on the West Coast.
[Click on any image to enlarge.]
March 6, 1942 Press Release – Page 1
March 6, 1942 Press Release – Page 2
By the spring of 1943, Japanese Americans were volunteering to serve in the armed forces, and there was growing sentiment to allow them and their families to return home. When asked his views on these developments during testimony before a subcommittee of the House Naval Affairs Committee, DeWitt is reported to have said “A Jap’s a Jap – it makes no difference whether he is an American citizen or not.”
Dewitt Gives Testimony. April 13, 1943
Here is an extract of DeWitt’s testimony before the subcommittee (which his staff apparently prepared):
Extract of DeWitt Testimony – Page 1
Extract of DeWitt Testimony – Page 2
Extract of DeWitt Testimony – Page 3
DeWitt’s word hit the newspapers and radio, and everything blew up. DeWitt was immediately directed to explain himself. Here is a transcript of a telephone conversation between DeWitt and Assistant Secretary of War John McCloy:
Phone Transcript with McCloy – April 14, 1943 – Page 1
Phone Transcript with McCloy – April 14, 1943 – Page 2
Two days after his testimony, DeWitt gets a call from Gen. George Veazey Strong, the U.S. Army Chief for Intelligence (G-2):
Phone Transcript with General Strong – April 15, 1943 – Page 1
Phone Transcript with General Strong – April 15, 1943 – Page 2
Later that same day, DeWitt speaks again with Secretary McCloy:
Phone Transcript with McCloy – April 15, 1943 – Page 1
Phone Transcript with McCloy – April 15, 1943 – Page 2
Aside from these mild rebukes, DeWitt was never censured for his remarks, and his career did not suffer as a result; he later became commandant of the Army and Navy Staff College.
In 1963 DeWitt’s son donated his papers relating to military service to the National Archives. These documents are found in a file labeled “Evacuation of Japanese”, along with this self-serving tally of public opinion (again prepared by his staff) regarding DeWitt’s stance against Japanese Americans:
Public Opinion Memo – July 1, 1943 – Page 1
Public Opinion Memo – July 1, 1943 – Page 2
Public Opinion Memo – July 1, 1943 – Page 3
It’s interesting to consider how we decide what to keep and what to discard that represents our life, our work, and our legacy. In his later years, did John DeWitt ever voice regrets over his actions during the war? Were Japanese Americans to be always and forevermore “Japs”?
All records from “Gen. John L. DeWitt Personal Papers – Records Relating to Military Service, 1921-1926”, National Archives Identifier 7432140 [coming in OPA soon]
TAGS Army and Navy Staff College
, evacuation of Japanese
, evacuation of Japanese Americans
, Executive Order 9066
, General George Veazey Strong
, House Naval Affairs Committee
, Japanese Americans
, John McCloy
, Lt. General John L. DeWitt
, U.S. Army Chief for Intelligence
, U.S. Army Western Defense Command
Today’s post is written by Dr. Greg Bradsher.
During the past several weeks there has been great international interest in the art works that had been in the possession of Hildebrand Gurlitt before and during World War II, some of which were ultimately recovered at war’s end, stored at the United States Army’s Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point and subsequently returned to him five years later. Fortunately for those interested in the subject, a significant amount of documentation held by the National Archives regarding Gurlitt and his art works has been digitized and is available on www.fold3.com.
The story of Gurlitt and his art works involves many facets, including the acquisition and disposition of them by the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point. In order better to understand the context in which that collecting point came into existence and initially operated, I thought it would be useful to provide some background.
As the Allies pushed further into Germany during the spring of 1945, the MFA&A (Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives) officers, the so-called Monuments Men, continued to uncover not only looted cultural property, but also, increasingly, German-owned cultural property that had been hidden in castles, salt mines, air-raid bunkers, and other secure places for safekeeping. By mid-June more than 600 emergency repositories of cultural property had been located or their existence had been confirmed by the six MFA&A officers with the 12th Army Group, and over 100 of them had been actually inspected by them. It was at this time that an MFA&A officer expressed the belief that it was safe to assume that at least two-thirds of recovered cultural property would prove to be legitimate Germany property, not looted property. This would indeed be the case. However, procedures called for all German art collections in repositories to be suspected of containing looted material until they had been personally inspected and screened by MFA&A personnel.
Realizing the importance of the cultural property that was being identified and desiring to protect it until ownership could be established, on May 21, SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force) sent a message to the Army Groups indicating that they were responsible for the storage, safeguarding, preservation and inventorying of the art treasures that had been discovered in areas occupied by their forces. Pending agreement on final disposal of such art treasures, the Army Groups were to make immediate arrangements to concentrate and safeguard them in suitable accommodation at some location within their eventual zones in Germany. On or about June 1, 1945, the United States Army decided to establish collecting points to house recovered cultural property. Even before the formal establishment of such collecting points, in April 1945, with the recovery of German-owned art from the Berlin museums, gold, and SS loot in the mine at Merkers, the Reichsbank in Frankfurt was put into use as a storage facility, primarily for gold, currency, and jewelry. In the next month, Monuments Man Captain Walker Hancock established a collecting repository within the State Archives building at Marburg for such items as paintings from the Suermondt Museum in Aachen, the Metz Cathedral treasure, and numerous other cultural properties from Cologne, Essen, and other western German cities.
During June 1945, the Army decided to establish a collecting point in Munich for recovered looted cultural property, since most of such property was being recovered in Bavaria. The Army also decided to establish a collecting point in Frankfurt, primarily for German-owned items, but a suitable facility could not be found. So the Army turned its attention to the Landesmuseum at Wiesbaden. It was considered the only safe and secured building in that part of Germany. Though damaged, it was ideal for the purpose and it was repairable. The Landesmuseum, designed by Theodor Fischer and completed in 1915, served as cultural facility for collections of fine arts, natural science and archaeology. The building suffered relatively little bomb damage, but all the glass in building’s 2,000 windows had been blown out in the bombings and part of the roof was gone. After the war it was used by displaced persons who did much damage and destruction. Then the U.S. Army moved in a quartermaster’s supply unit that utilized the building as a warehouse and center for the distribution of soldiers’ uniforms and rations.
Army officials wanted quick repairs on the museum in Wiesbaden because they were eager to move the cultural property out of the Reichsbank in Frankfurt, whose numbers increased during May and June. A report in the third week of June indicated that at the bank were over 3,000 boxes and crates containing sculptures, paintings, prints, engravings, woodcuts, and other objects of artistic or cultural importance.
On July 2 the 12th Army Group ordered the U.S. Seventh Army to request space in the Wiesbaden Museum for storage of works of art then held in Reichsbank and suggested the building be made as weather-proof and secured as possible. Assigned to oversee the operation was 33-year-old Captain Walter Inge Farmer. A graduate of Miami University (Ohio) in Architecture in 1935, he did architecture work from 1935 to 1942, entered the Army in March 1942, and was commissioned in January 1943 after Engineer Officer Candidate School. In early June, Farmer, who had by then serving for two years with the 373rd Engineer General Service Regiment, successfully requested to join the MFA&A assignment.
In late June Farmer was informed about the Landesmuseum going to be requisitioned and that he would be sent to Wiesbaden to oversee its repair as well as to serve as the MFA&A officer. He was told that the Reichsbank Frankfurt material (including the Merkers cultural property) would be sent to Wiesbaden. Besides being responsible for the engineer work on the building he was to be responsible to survey and protect other cultural properties in the Regierungsbezirk, a governmental district which included the Land, or county, of Hesse and the immediate area of Nassau. He was expected to check within a 100-mile vicinity to visit repositories to determine their status and possible transfer to Wiesbaden.
When Farmer arrived at Wiesbaden, he found the building being used as a quartermaster depot and that the building, besides having window glass and roof problems, had no water, no heat, and no light, but that it was salvageable. In short order steps were initiated for requisitioning and repairing the Landesmuseum. The first weeks Farmer spent 18 hour days working on the building, knowing he had been given two less than two months to get things in order. Farmer also found time, in early July, to inspect various repositories.
By mid-July, knowing that the bulk of the artwork stored at Frankfurt would be coming to Wiesbaden starting August 20, Farmer requested assistance. The help came in late July in the form of 26-year-old art historian, Corporal Kenneth Lindsay, who had been with a Signal Corps Intelligence unit decoding messages.
By mid-August, the Landesmuseum having been repaired, the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point was almost ready to receive the cultural property from the Reichsbank in Frankfurt. At this point Farmer was informed that he would be collecting point director. While waiting on the transfer of the items from Frankfurt to Wiesbaden, Farmer continued inspecting repositories in his geographical area of responsibility.
During the latter part of August the Reichsbank-held items were moved to the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point. Also coming to the collecting point in late August were other items, including two collections of loot from Poland, thirteen cases of archaeological materials and 773 liturgical objects looted from the treasuries of the Polish churches. Arriving on September 17 were Hungarian Coronation Regalia. Much of the material coming to Wiesbaden after that date was German-owned or alleged German-owned property that had been hidden and recovered. Now came the hard work of inventorying the materials began and the awaiting instructions regarding their disposition.
Most of the story of what happened subsequently is in the records of the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point. These records have been reproduced on 117 rolls of microfilm publication: M1947, Records Concerning the Central Collecting Points (“Ardelia Hall Collection”): Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point, 1945-1952. Several years ago the microfilm was digitized and is available on the Holocaust Era Assets section of www.fold3.com. For additional information about other relevant National Archives records see http://www.archives.gov/research/holocaust/. Please also visit the website of the Monuments Men Foundation.
TAGS 12th Army Group
, 373rd Engineer General Service Regiment
, Allied Expeditionary Force
, Ardelia Hall Collection
, Captain Walter Hancock
, Captain Walter Inge Farmer
, Greg Bradsher
, Hildebrand Gurlitt
, Hungarian Coronation Regalia
, looted art
, Metz Cathedral
, Suermondt Museum
, The Monuments Men
, Theodor Fischer
, U.S. 7th Army
, Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point
, World War II
Today’s post is written by Kylene Woods, a processing archivist at Archives II in College Park.
You are interested in knowing more about the army unit your grandfather served with during World War II. Grandpa Jim served with the 1884th Engineer Aviation Battalion, and you want to know more about the type of work the unit did and where it traveled during the war. Army Unit Records are a potential source for this information.
It is important to gather information about the soldier or army unit you are interested in researching before you visit or write in to the National Archives. In order to use our finding aids, you will need the soldier’s unit designation, and, to narrow your search, the soldier’s approximate dates of service.
If you don’t know Grandpa Jim’s unit, you will want a copy of his military personnel record. Please visit the National Archives at St. Louis webpage for Military Personnel Records. IMPORTANT: please read carefully through the information on the above website in order to understand the steps you need to take to receive copies of these records.
If you know the unit designation (ex: 1884th Engineer Aviation Battalion), below are the ways in which you can access the unit records you are seeking.
Army Unit records at the National Archives
The first record group (RG) to look in for World War II unit records is RG 407, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office. WWII army unit records will vary in terms of content and completeness for each unit. Generally, larger units will have more documentation than smaller ones. Types of records that can be found include: after action reports, general orders, daily journals, staff reports (ex: S-2 reports), unit histories, etc.
If you are researching a specific soldier, it is important to remember that unit records rarely contain personal names. Generally, the only names you will find are in general orders that list the name, rank, and service numbers of soldiers that received awards and decorations. You may find the names of senior officers or soldiers specifically singled out because of some noteworthy happening.
You may find other records of interest in RG 338 Records of the U.S. Army Operational, Tactical, and Support Organizations (WWII and Thereafter), Entry (UD) 37042: Unit Histories, 1943-1967. If you are looking for the records of a medical unit, you will also want to check RG 112 Records of the Office of the Surgeon General (Army), Entry (UD) 1012: Medical Unit Annual Reports.
Searching the Online Public Access (OPA) system
Every researcher will want to visit our Online Public Access (OPA) system for descriptions of records relevant to their topic. Here is the series description for U.S. Army unit records during World War II (RG 407, Entry (NM-3) 427: World War II Operations Report, 1940-1948).
As you can see from the OPA description, these particular records are not available online. To gain access to these records, researchers can visit Archives II in College Park, MD or write in to the appropriate reference unit. Reference unit contact information is under the “Archived Copies” section of the OPA description (below highlighted in green).
Visiting the National Archives (On-Site Research)
You have decided to visit the research room at Archives II in College Park, Maryland. Once you enter the research room and make your way to the consultation area, a reference staff member will direct you to the RG 407 finding aids.
The finding aids for the RG 407 unit records are arranged by type of unit (armor, infantry, engineer, etc.) and then by unit number. Once you find the unit in the appropriate finding aid, you will need to know how to interpret what you are viewing: the first column includes the file number, the second includes a brief description of the file, and the third column contains the date of the file or files.
When checking the finding aids, you may not find your unit by type and number. In that case, you will want to check at the division level for that unit. It may be good practice to check the division level finding aid in either case.
Filling out the pull slip for WWII Army Unit Records
The WWII army unit records in RG 407 are very popular and also a semi-special case. The information on the pull slip used to pull the records is actually the file number (first column). We do not possess a box list for these records. The drawback of pulling by file number is that it is difficult to know how many boxes will be returned to you. With a 24 box limit per pull, there is the possibility that you won’t get all the files you requested in one pull.
The above pull slip will get you all the files for the unit, but if you are only interested in the general orders for this unit (file number ENBN-1884-1.13), you would only write that file number on your pull slip. Then, the pull staff will retrieve the box with that particular file. With the RG 407 army unit records, you will always use the same starting location (stack area/row/compartment/shelf) no matter what file you are requesting.
Contacting the National Archives with your Reference Request (Off-site Request)
As noted above, you will find the contact information for the appropriate Reference staff (Textual, Still Pictures, Cartographic, etc.) on the OPA description under the “Archived Copies” section. When you write or email the reference staff, you will want to include the unit designation and the approximate dates you are interested in researching. You will also want to note that type of unit records you are interested in, ex: after action reports, daily journals, general orders, etc.
There are plenty of resources available to begin your search for military records. You may wish to read over NARA’s pamphlet “Finding Information on Personal Participation in World War II.” Additionally, you may want to consult Jonathan Gawne’s Finding Your Father’s War: a Practical Guide to Researching and Understanding Service in the World War II U.S. Army. Philadelphia: Casemate, 2006.
TAGS 1884th Engineer Aviation Battalion
, After Action Reports
, Army Unit Records
, daily journals
, file numbers
, finding aids
, Finding Your Father's War
, general orders
, Jonathan Gawne
, Military Personnel Record
, Military Service Record
, National Archives in St Louis
, off-site reference requests
, on-site research
, Online Public Access system
, Personal Participation in World War II
, pull slip
, Records of the Adjutant General's Office
, Records of the Office of the Surgeon General (Army)
, Records of the U.S. Army Operational Tactile and Support Organizations
, Reference staff
, RG 112
, RG 338
, RG 407
, S-2 reports
, staff reports
, unit histories
, World War II Army Unit Records
Know Your Records: U.S. Navy Deck Logs
U.S. Navy deck logs and muster rolls are among the most popular U.S. Navy records in our holdings. Archivists here at Archives II frequently consult these records to answer researcher requests. Considering their popularity, we thought it might be helpful to dive a little deeper [pun intended!] into the information contained within each record type. Today’s topic: Deck logs!
U.S. Navy Deck Logs – What they are:
A deck log is a brief record of the daily administrative activities of a ship. It includes journal-style entries of the ship’s administrative activities; location and course of travel; disciplinary procedures; and any unusual events. The logs sometime include information related to operational activities, although the level of content and detail may vary widely.
[Click on any image to enlarge.]
Deck log of USS Borum (DE-790) – 12 November 1945
Deck log of USS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) – 04 March 1960
Deck log of USS Bon Homme Richard (CVA-31) – 04 March 1960
Deck log of USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7) – 01 September 1967
For the period of 1941 through 1956, deck logs generally include monthly rosters of officers. Beginning in March 1957, officer rosters are no longer included in the deck logs. From 1957 onwards, officer rosters are included in the ship’s Muster Rolls/Personnel Diaries. Rosters of enlisted crew are always found on the ship’s Muster Rolls/Personnel Diaries.
Only the deck logs of major combatant and support ships are considered permanent records, per the Department of the Navy records management regulations. Other types of logs (engineer, engine room, quarter deck, sick bay or sick call, radio, and quartermaster) are deemed to be temporary records and destroyed by the Navy after initial administrative use. Medical information concerning individuals should be included in the medical file of the individual.
What they are not:
Deck logs are not detailed journals describing a ship’s mission and all events transpiring in and around the ship, although they do sometimes provide information about a ship’s operations.
Deck logs also do not provide personnel information besides the monthly officer rosters for the years 1941 through 1956, as mentioned above. Personnel might be listed if they were involved in an accident or if they faced disciplinary action aboard ship. Unfortunately, we do not have a name index for these records.
Requesting deck logs from 1941-1978:
If you are interested in requesting information from or copies of U.S. Navy deck logs for the period 1941-1978, please contact email@example.com.
In your request, please include:
- Full name of the ship, and hull number, if possible
- the dates of interest
- the nature of your inquiry
Tips for requesting deck logs:
Due to the number of requests received, and the limitations of staff and resources, archivists are unable to consult a large volume of deck logs per request. The following tips should be kept in mind when submitting a request:
- Do some research in advance of submitting your request. The Naval History and Heritage Command Histories Branch website provides links to very useful information, including the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Consulting these sites may help you better frame your inquiry.
- Provide as much information about your inquiry as possible. Be specific. A general request such as “I would like the deck logs of the USS Essex from January-December 1945” is too broad a request for the archivists to sufficiently answer. What would you like to know about the USS Essex during this time? As mentioned above, a little research beforehand may help you better frame your inquiry.
- Keep your timeframe as narrow as possible. Deck logs per ship per day frequently comprise multiple pages. For example, the deck logs of the USS Essex from April-June 1945 will likely consist of hundreds of pages. A narrow timeframe enables the Navy archivists to better answer your request.
Requesting pre-1941 deck logs:
Deck logs prior to 1941 are maintained by NARA’s Archives I Reference Section (RDTR1), National Archives Main Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001. To request deck logs prior to 1941, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Requesting post-1978 deck logs:
Deck logs dated after 1978 are maintained at the Navy History and Heritage Command. To request post-1978 deck logs, please write to the Ships Deck Logs Section, Naval History & Heritage Command, 805 Kidder Breese Street, SE, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374-5060. More information can be found here.
Deck logs online:
Many deck logs have been digitized and are available via NARA’s Online Public Access (OPA). Following the link http://research.archives.gov/description/594258 will take you to the series “Logbooks of the U.S. Navy Ships and Stations, 1941-1978.” To search within the series:
- In the Details area, look for “…file(s) described in the catalog”
- Click on the “Search within this Series” button
- A search box will appear in the OPA banner at the top of the screen
- Enter ship name or hull name. Do not include the prefix USS.
If the deck logs of the ship of interest have been digitized, the images will appear on the results page. Only the first three results will appear. To view all results, click on “View all Online Holdings” on the right side of the page.
Click on the image or hyperlink of the desired deck log to see a larger view of the image and to be able to download the image.
Do you Know Your Records?
Found anything interesting in the deck logs? Do you have another series of records you’d like us to similarly describe? We’d love to hear about it! Let us know in the comments!
TAGS Archives I Reference Section
, Archives II Reference Section
, deck logs
, Department of the Navy
, Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
, Know Your Records
, Naval History and Heritage Command
, Naval History and Heritage Command Histories Branch
, Online Public Access
, Requesting Records
, U.S. Navy
, USS Bon Homme Richard
, USS Borum
, USS Mount McKinley
Today’s post is written by Dr. Greg Bradsher and is the continuation of last week’s post.
On April 9, 1863, President Lincoln met Tartar. On that day the President reviewed I Corps (commanded by Maj. Gen. John Reynolds) of the Army of the Potomac and freed slaves serving in the army on a plain two miles back from the Rappahannock River, directly opposite of Fredericksburg. After Stewart had passed in review, riding Tartar, he was sent for in order to allow the President to look at the horse’s wound. As soon as Lincoln saw it, he said to the general officers about him: “This reminds me of a tale,” which he proceeded to relate to their great amusement, but Stewart was not near enough to hear what it was. But Lincoln’s little son Tad, mounted on a pony, followed Stewart and insisted on trading horses. Stewart told him he could not do that, but he persisted in telling Stewart that his papa was the President, and would give him any horse he wanted in trade for Tartar. “I had a hard time.” Stewart later recalled, “to get away from the little fellow.”
Less than three weeks later, Stewart and Tartar were back at war. Battery B was engaged at Fitzhugh’s Crossing on April 26, Pollock’s Mill Crossing from April 29 through May 2, and at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 4-6. Tartar and the battery now moved north toward Maryland and Pennsylvania as a result of General Robert E. Lee moving his army up the Shenandoah Valley in that direction.
The day before Battery B reached Gettysburg, Tartar was lamed by running a nail into one of his forefeet and did not go into the battle. Battery B, however, saw considerable action. It went into action at Gettysburg on the afternoon of July 1, and was severely engaged, barely escaping capture, and finally fell back to Cemetery Hill. The next day it was hard at work under a very heavy fire, and, continuing in position, had the same experience July 3. This battle resulted in Stewart and another officer being wounded, and 32 men and 32 horses killed, wounded and missing. Stewart was promoted to First Lieutenant on July 3.
In the pursuit of General Lee’s forces after the battle, Tartar could not keep up with the Battery, and Stewart left him with a farmer on the road, with a note stating what command he belonged to and other information about Tartar. The battery, following after the Confederates, engaged them at the Battle of Funkstown, Maryland on July 11 and at Warrenton, Virginia on July 23. In August, one of Stewart’s friends informed him that he had seen Tartar tied up with General H. J. Kilpatrick’s Cavalry Division. Stewart went and retrieved him. Tartar and the battery would next see action at Haymarket on October 19 and at Mine Run on November 30. After that it was a relatively relaxing winter for the battery and Tartar.
But in early February the battery was back in action. To distract attention from a planned cavalry-infantry raid up the Peninsula on Richmond, the Union army, with Battery B, forced several crossings of the Rapidan River on February 6-7, 1864. The battery moved from the First Corps to the Fifth Corps in March 1864, then commanded by Major General Gouverneur K. Warren. Then the battery and Tartar participated in General Grant’s offensive against the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, fighting first at the Battle of the Wilderness, May 5-7, and at Spotsylvania Court House, May 12.
It was that at this battle that Isaac Vandicar, who served as Stewart’s orderly, and as such had taken care of Tartar, was mortally wounded. Some of his battery mates started to carry him away from the field in a blanket when he said, “I want to see the Old Man!” They called Stewart, who came to him and said, “Van, my poor boy, what can I do for you?” “Nothing, Captain,” replied Ike, with perfect composure, “I know I must die, but I wanted to say good-by to you, and I want you to see that ‘Old Tartar’ has good care after I am gone!” Vandicar would die that day. Stewart was honored by brevet to Captain August 1, 1864 for gallant and meritorious service in the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House and during the campaign before Richmond.
The battery would see action at Po River on May 20, at North Anna River on May 23, at Totopotomy Creek on May 25, at Bethesda Church on June 1-4, at White House on June 15, and at the battle before Petersburg on June 18. It remained in that vicinity the rest of the year. Stewart was brevetted a Major on August 18, 1864 for gallant and meritorious service in the battle on the Weldon Railroad, Virginia, a few days earlier. Tartar and the battery took part in a fight at Hatchers Run October 28, 1864 and participated in General Warren’s Raid on Weldon Railroad on December 7-12.
After a peaceful winter, Battery B and Tartar were back in action at Lewis Farm, near Gravelly Run March 29, 1865, at Quaker Road on March 30, at White Oak Road on March 31, and at the Battle of Five Forks on April 1. The Confederate loss at Five Forks prompted Lee to abandon his entrenchments around Petersburg and begin the retreat that led to Appomattox. On April 9, Lee, finding himself and his forces being surrounded, surrendered his army. Battery B and Tartar were there. Perhaps he might have seen General Grant’s horse Cincinnati or General Lee’s horse Traveller.
The battery and Tartar moved to Washington, D.C. in May and took part in the Grand Review of the Army on May 23. Until August, the battery remained in Washington, D.C. on garrison duty.
By the fall of 1865 most of the batteries of the 4th Artillery Regiment had been dismounted and the regiment was performing garrison duty. Headquarters were at Fort McHenry with batteries at that post and in various locations in Washington, D.C., Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. At some point in 1866 Battery B was sent to Fort Leavenworth. Stewart continued in Regular Army service, and was appointed Captain, 18th U.S. Infantry Regiment on July 28 1866. When leaving Battery B he left Tartar with the battery. Stewart would serve with the 18th Infantry Regiment until retired on March 20, 1879.
What became of Tartar? He probably did not follow Battery B into the field in 1867 when it was engaged in a campaign against the Cheyenne Indians. He probably ended his service at Fort Leavenworth where his career in the Army had begun in 1857.
, Army of the Potomac
, Battery B
, Battle of Chancellorsville
, Battle of Five Forks
, Battle of Funkstown
, Battle of the Wilderness
, Bethesda Church
, Cemetery Hill
, Fitzhugh's Crossing
, Fort Leavenworth
, Fort McHenry
, General H. J. Kilpatrick
, Gravelly Run
, Hatchers Run
, Isaac Vandicar
, Lewis Farm
, Major General Gouverneur K. Warren
, Major General John Reynolds
, Mine Run
, North Anna River
, Po River
, Pollock's Mill Crossing
, President Abraham Lincoln
, Quaker Road
, Rapidan River
, Rappahannock River
, Robert E. Lee
, Spotsylvania Court House
, Tad Lincoln
, Totopotomy Creek
, Weldon Railroad
, White House
, White Oak Road