by Ligon on March 11, 2014
Today’s blog is written by Dr. Tina L. Ligon, Archivist at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland
Black women have a long history of work in the United States. They have toiled in hot fields, cared for other people’s children, cleaned homes, worked in factories, taught in poorly funded schools, and held numerous professional and political positions. African American women are a part of the American workforce by choice or by circumstance. They contributed to the progress and success of leading industries with dedication and hard work. And after these long days away from the home, black women still managed to find the strength to care for and nurture their own families.
National Archives Identifier 535413
The iconic image of Rosie the riveter during the war years depicts a white woman flexing her muscles and wearing a bandanna with the catch phrase “We Can Do It!” Black women also gave their labor in support of the wartime shortages. Women of all races and ages worked in various factories and industries during both world wars across northern and mid-western states. Most women endured difficulties as paid labor in the wartime industries, which include low pay, sexual harassment, and grueling working conditions. Black women, who often worked in segregated areas, were paid even less than their white female counterparts and also had to deal with racism and oppression, while attempting to support their families and the war effort.
The General Photographic File, 1893-1945 (National Archives Identifier 522858) series in RG 86 Records of the Women’s Bureau contains photographs showcasing women at work during World War I and the early 1920s. The Department of Labor managed to document all classes and races of American women employed at various naval yards, tobacco plants, Army hospitals, and federal agencies. Within this series are images of black women employed in lumber yards, in manufacturing plants, at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, and in steel mills. The photographs from this series illustrate African American women at work and their struggles to obtain better pay and improved working conditions.
The series Negro Activities in Industry, Government, and the Armed Forces, 1941-1945 (National Archives Identifier 535799) in RG 208 Records of the Office of War Information consists of photographs detailing all aspects of black life during the World War II years. Among these images are representations of African American women’s contributions to the wartime labor shortage. Similar to the war effort during the First World War, black women filled vacant positions in industrial and service sector positions. These photographs also show black women at work in both civilian and military offices.
Today’s blog is written by Dr. Christina Violeta Jones, Textual Reference Archivist at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland
1969 was a remarkable year. Richard Nixon became the 37th President, Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin were the first two men to land on the moon, and Woodstock the music festival took place. Also born in 1969 was the tourism/travel slogan “Virginia is for Lovers,” established by advertising agents David N. Martin and George Woltz of Richmond, Virginia. This bold and provocative phrase was intended to plant a new image of a more exciting Virginia, appealing to younger consumers who were the market of the future. Given the new unofficial state motto, it is incredible that only two years before Richard Perry Loving, a white man, and Mildred Delores Jeter Loving, a woman of African American and Native American descent, were fighting for the right to live as husband and wife in the state of Virginia. Loving v. Virginia (1967) was a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Decision, Loving v. Virginia
Laws banning interracial marriage (also known as anti-miscegenation laws) were well established throughout the United States since the country declared its independence in 1776. The Virginia state law was the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which prohibited marriage between whites and other non-white ethnic groups, mandated that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth, and divided society into two classifications: white and colored. However, in certain parts of Virginia “racial integrity” did not always translate from the law books into real life. The town where the Lovings grew up was considered “the passing capital of America” for the ability of its black residents to pass as white once they left town. Nevertheless, segregation and its laws still existed.
When Mildred became pregnant in June of 1958, the couple married in Washington, D.C. where there was no law against interracial marriage and soon after returned to Caroline County, Virginia. One night the local police raided their home and when Mildred pointed their marriage certificate out to the police, the document became the evidence for a criminal charge. The couple was charged under Section 20-58 of the Virginia Code, which prohibited interracial couples from being married out of state and then returning to Virginia, and Section 20-59, which classified miscegenation as a felony.
In January, 1959, the Lovings pleaded guilty and were sentenced to one year in prison, with the sentence suspended for 25 years on condition that the couple leaves the state of Virginia. It was then that the couple moved back to Washington, D.C.
By 1964, the Lovings were frustrated, in part from their social isolation and financial difficulties, but more so because they were unable to travel in Virginia as a married couple, to visit their families. Around this time, Mildred wrote a letter in protest to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy. Kennedy referred her to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). The ACLU attorneys Phil Hirschkop and Bernard Cohen filed a motion on behalf of the couple in the Virginia State trial court to vacate the judgment from Virginia and set aside the sentence on the grounds that the violated statues ran counter to the Fourteenth Amendment. This set in motion a series of lawsuits, which ultimately reached the Supreme Court of the United States.
As seen in the Opinion given above, the Supreme Court overturned the convictions for violating the Virginia Code in an unanimous decision to dismiss the case that a law forbidding both white and black people from marrying people of another race and providing identical penalties to white and black violator could be construed as racial discrimination (RG 267, Appellate Jurisdiction Case Files). The court ruled that Virginia’s miscegenation status violated both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Telegram Announcing the Decision in Loving v. Virginia
As we celebrate African American History month and Valentine’s Day in February, readers should keep in mind that Richard and Mildred Loving never considered themselves activists, they just wanted to live a simple life; loving each other, living happily married, and raising their children in their home in the state of Virginia.
Readers should note that several documents from the Supreme Court Loving v. Virginia case file are featured in the Records of Rights and the Making their Mark: Stories through Signatures exhibits. Making their Mark will open March 21, 2014 and close January 5, 2015 in the O’Brien Gallery at the National Archives building in Washington, DC.
by Ligon on February 18, 2014
Today’s blog is written by Alexis Hill, Assistant Registrar in the Exhibits Division at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland.
February 12, 2014 marked the 105th anniversary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Founded in 1909, by a diverse group of people, which included educator W. E. B. Du Bois and activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett, the NAACP has had a long history of fighting for equal rights for people of all races during the twentieth century. The organization was particularly active during the civil rights movements of the 1950s and 1960s and provided legal counsel in many discrimination cases. The founding date of the NAACP was also significant because it was the anniversary of President Abraham Lincoln’s 100th birthday.
During its early years, the NAACP fought Jim Crow laws in the South, which promoted segregation in the schools, transportation, and in public places. The NAACP used the courts to overturn these laws. Members of the organization led various lawsuits that challenged racial segregation and most of them went to the United States Supreme Court. One case in particular was Guinn v. United States (1915), which challenged Oklahoma’s racial discriminatory grandfather clause that disenfranchised African Americans from registering to vote. In the end, the court ruled that the grandfather clause violated the 15th Amendment and ruled it unconstitutional. This was the beginning of many victories to come for the NAACP.
During World War I, the NAACP was influential in winning the right of African Americans to fight overseas and the rights of working Black women. Several NAACP representatives sent letters and telegrams to the Department of Justice (DOJ) and to President Woodrow Wilson seeking federal action for the protection of African American women in the workforce. One such telegram from NAACP’s secretary John R. Shillady in New York to President Wilson, asked for such protection.
The Crisis magazine, edited by Du Bois, printed several articles about the mistreatment of African Americans both at home and abroad during the war years. One particular article in May 1918, “The Negro and the War Department,” discussed the injustices that were inflicted upon Black soldiers.
After World War I ended in November 1918, the NAACP began a crusade against the lynching of African Americans in the United States, particularly in the South. Many NAACP staff members such as Assistant Secretary Roy Wilkins and Secretary Walter White wrote to several government agencies seeking federal legislation against lynching. Subjects of these letters included the investigation into a double lynching in Tuscaloosa, Alabama; support for the Costigan-Wagner Anti-Lynching Bill; the lynching of Claude Neal in Florida; and drafting a measure to punish perpetrators of mob violence against any religious, political, or racial minority groups. All of these letters are from the records of the DOJ numerical file #158260 in the Straight Numerical Files series (National Archives Identifier 583895) that contains all sorts of letters relating to racial violence.
At their office in New York City, NAACP staff hung a black flag outside entitled “A Man Was Lynched Yesterday.” Its purpose was to reminder every one of what was happening to African Americans in the South.
Bolstered by the Brown v. Board of Education decision in May 1954, the NAACP began a campaign of desegregation in the South. Famous campaigns of desegregation were the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 and the Little Rock Nine of 1957.
By the 1960s, the NAACP’s reputation had grown. They were involved in most major events that occurred during the years of the modern Civil Rights Movement, which included the March on Washington and the march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. These events contributed to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. NAACP’s Executive Director Roy Wilkins played a major role during the civil rights movement, including the March on Washington. For more on his career and the NAACP’s growth and impact of the movement, please watch a video entitled Roy Wilkins, The Right to Dignity (National Archives Identifier 2546045) narrated by Academy Award winner Sidney Poitier.
Today, the NAACP continues to fight for equal rights for all citizens of race, gender, religion, etc. As we celebrate Black History Month, let us remember the NAACP as they celebrate 105 years of hard work and fighting for equal justice.
by Ligon on February 11, 2014
Today’s blog is written by Kevin L. Bradley, Archives Technician in the Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Division at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland
African-American art has been a vital part of the American experience from the time of slavery in America to the present. Black artists and their artwork have been documented in textual records, still pictures and moving images at the National Archives.
Sargent Johnson, painting (National Archives Identifier 559180)
The Harmon Film Collection at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland includes footage on some of the great African-American artists of the Harlem Renaissance. Artists such as Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Laura Wheeler Waring, Sargent Johnson, and Palmer Hayden were highlighted in several films sponsored by the William E. Harmon Foundation. The Series Motion Picture Films on Community and Family Life, Education, Religious Beliefs, and the Art and Culture of Minority and Ethnic Groups, ca. 1930 to ca. 1953 (National Archives Identifier 94791) contains nearly 300 items relating to African-American life and culture in the United States and abroad. The films were funded by the Harmon Foundation to showcase the talents of black artists, primarily those during the Harlem Renaissance.
“A STUDY OF NEGRO ARTISTS, 1937?”
“A Study of the Negro Artists, 1937?” (National Archives Identifier 94957) is a great source for learning more about African-American artists during the early 20th century. This silent film illustrates African-American artists and their art collections. Featured in the film are Lois Mailou Jones, Augusta Savage, James A. Porter, and several other black artists working or instructing others. This film also shows the important of art in African-American culture, which was sometimes used for communication as well as a venue to past down the African-American history and experience. The skills of the selected artists in the film were used in college classrooms across the country.
by Ligon on February 4, 2014
Today’s blog is written by Vera J. Williams, IT Specialist in the BP Project Assistance Division at the National Archives at College Park, Maryland
On January 15, 2014, the 85th birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., a family member, Clayton Adams and I walked in the path of our Great-Great-Great Grandfather Solomon Northup – the object of the award winning movie based on the slave narrative “Twelve Years a Slave”. This book is the true story written by our 3xGreat Grandfather, a free black man from Saratoga, New York who was kidnapped and sold into slavery in 1841, and was eventually rescued twelve years later.
First, Clayton and I visited the corner of Seventh Street and Pennsylvania Avenue on the northwest side of Federal Triangle in Washington, DC. This location is the former site of the Shekell’s Tavern, where Solomon was drugged by his “business associates” Merrill Brown (real name Alexander Merrill) and Abram Hamilton (real name Joseph Russell), while he ate dinner. Solomon had originally met these men in Saratoga Springs, New York, where he was encouraged to come to DC for his musical capabilities.
Next, we traveled to 555 Pennsylvania Avenue, the previous site of John Gadsby’s Hotel where Solomon Northup stayed while visiting “Washington City.” Gadsby’s Hotel (also known as the National Hotel) was where he was taken after becoming sick from the drugs that Brown and Hamilton had given him at dinner. Today, this is the location of the Newseum, an interactive museum for news and journalism.
We continued on to the corner of Seventh Street and Independence Avenue SW, the previous site of Williams’ Slave Pen. This is where Solomon Northup awoke in chains shackled to the floor, after being drugged and kidnapped, and before being sold into slavery. Here he was viciously beaten as he professed he was a free man and that a mistake had been made, until he no longer protested. Today this is the location of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
From Williams’ Slave Pen, Northrup’s name was changed to Plat Hamilton to hid is true identity, he was then placed in a wagon with other slaves, transported to Richmond, Virginia and put on the Brig Orleans headed for Louisiana. The National Archives at Ft. Worth holds the ship’s manifest (seen below) that imposed a new identity on Solomon Northrup in RG 36 Records of the U.S. Customs Service.
Manifest of Slaves to be Transported on the Brig Orleans
Clayton and I concluded our walk by visiting the US Capitol, which Solomon could see out of his window while being held at the Williams’ Slave Pen.
The locations mentioned in this blog are very familiar to me. Previously, I visited the US Capitol, had taken the Metro train at Federal Triangle, and I worked at the FAA as a contractor for a few years. However, this time, visiting these locations, I knew the back story and felt heavy hearted thinking of the pain Solomon must have experienced at these locations.
A book recently published by David Fiske, Dr. Clifford Brown and Rachel Seligman - Solomon Northup: The Complete Story of the Author of Twelve Years a Slave, details the information I described as we walked in the path of our 3xGreat Grandfather. The forward of this book was written by Clayton’s mother, Carol Linzy Adams-Sally. Solomon’s story was experienced by many freed blacks, however they were never set free and their story may not have been documented. Their numbers are not known, as human trafficking throughout America and Washington, DC, our nation’s capital, was big business for it contributed extensively to the creation of the abundant infrastructure of our US economy.
I am delighted the movie “12 Years a Slave” was made by Fox Searchlight. It has received multiple awards and nominations, and has introduced numerous Americans to Solomon Northup and the plight of human trafficking in America. I am extremely proud of my ancestor; he had the “American Dream” in 1841. Unfortunately, it was taken from him, yet he survived slavery, achieved his freedom, returned home to his family and wrote a book documenting the experience.
Ms. Williams will have a discussion about Solomon Northrup as part of the Afro-American History Society’s Black History Month Programs on February 25, 2014 at 10:45 am. Please see the flyer below. If you have any questions, please contact Lisha Penn, President of the Afro-American History Society at (301) 837 2043.