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Spotted Tail, Chief of the Brule Sioux 1880.

Sinte Galeska, ca. 1880, also known as Spotted Tail, a chief of the Bruleton, band of the Oglala Sioux, was one of the signers of the Fort Laramie Treaty.

American Indian Treaties can be an extremely important starting point for teaching the history of a Native American tribe or tribes from a particular area of the United States.

These historic documents mark the beginning of a tribe’s transition from Sovereign Nation, with it’s own independent government and land base, to a “domestic, dependent, Nation” (Supreme Court 1831).   Over time, these “dependent” Nations were sometimes further reduced to “confederations” where from just a few to twenty or more separate tribes, bands, and communities were moved into one reservation area together and treated as one governmental entity.

As the result of a request for the National Archives to loan eight original treaties to the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. for their newly opened Nation to Nation Exhibit, we began digitizing Native American treaties to bring more to the public through the National Archives Online Catalog and DocsTeach.  On both DocsTeach and the Nation to Nation exhibit webpage, type-written transcriptions are included to make it easy for students to study the contents of these handwritten documents while still being able to see the original documents in color.

In addition, we’ve prepared the first of a series of DocsTeach teaching activities related to these treaties, entitled Treaties and Treaty Making. It can help teachers explain, in a simple way, the concept of treaty making between governments and the original sovereignty and independent nature of Native American tribes.  More DocsTeach activities will be added in the near future to further illustrate these concepts and to provide easy materials for classroom use.

American Indian Treaties currently available on DocsTeach include:

* 1790 – Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Creek Nation of Indians Signed at New York, 8/7/1790.

* 1794 – Treaty between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, 11/11/1794.

* 1795 – Treaty of Greenville, August 3, 1795 (Ratified Indian Treaty #23, 7 STAT 49), between the Wyandot, Delaware, Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatomie, Miami, Eel River, Wea, Kickapoo, Piankashaw, and Kaskaskia Tribes and signed by “Mad” Anthony Wayne, that ended the Indian War on the Northwestern Frontier, commonly called “Wayne’s War, 8/3/1795.

1804 Sac and Fox Treaty

1804 Sac and Fox Treaty

* 1804 – Treaty between the United States Government and the Sauk and Fox Indians on November 11, 1804. (Ratified Indian Treaty #43, 7 STAT 84)

* 1807 – Treaty between the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot, and Potawatomi Indians, 11/17/1807.

* 1809 – Treaty between the United States and the Delaware, Potawatomi, Miami and Eel River Tribes of Indians at Fort Wayne, Indiana, 9/30/1809.

* 1835 – Cherokee Treaty at New Echota, Georgia, December 29, 1835 (Ratified Indian Treaty)

* 1836 – Treaty between the United States and the Potawatomi Indians at Yellow River, Indiana, 8/5/1836.

* 1851 – Treaty between the United States and the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboin, Gros Ventre, Madan and Arikara Indians at Fort Laramie, Indian Territory, 9/17/1851.

* 1854 – Treaty between the United States and the Nisqualli, Puyallup and Other Indians at Medicine Creek, Washington Territory 12/26/1854.

* 1865 – Treaty of Little Arkansas River, October 14, 1865 (Ratified Indian Treaties #341, 14 STAT 703) between the U.S. and Arapahoe and Cheyenne Indians (Black Kettle Band) granting lands in reparation for the Sand Creek Massacre, 11/29/1964.

* 1868 – Fort Laramie Treaty, 4/29/1868.

* 1868 – Treaty between the United States Government and the Navajo Indians signed at Fort Sumner, New Mexico Territory on June 1, 1868. (Ratified Indian Treaty #372, 15 STAT 667)

See you at NCSS!

by on November 14, 2014


The National Council for the Social Studies Annual Conference starts next week in Boston.

You can catch up with us at several events to hear what’s new at the National Archives and Presidential Libraries.

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston

NLJFK 93-C52-29: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston, 15 November 1993

Pre-Conference Clinic:

Thurs, 11/20, 9 am — “One Tumultuous Year! 1963: The Struggle for Civil Rights” at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

Tour:

Fri, 11/21, 11:30 am — Guided tour of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, including special exhibit “To the Brink: JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis”

 

Conference Sessions:

Sammy the Eagle

Meet Sammy the Eagle, National Archives ambassador who teaches K–2 students about national symbols, in our interactive videoconferencing session.

Fri, 11/21, 10:05 am — Teaching the C3 Framework: A Guide to Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Social Studies with Chris Zarr of the National Archives at New York City and Kris Jarosik of the National Archives at Chicago, who will take part in the panel discussion

Fri, 11/21, 1 pm — Explore the National Archives from Your Classroom with Interactive Videoconferencing (IVC) with Jenny Sweeney of the National Archives at Fort Worth and Mickey Ebert of the National Archives at Kansas City

Fri, 11/21, 4:15 pm — Prequel to Independence: The Shot Heard round the World with Annie Davis of the National Archives at Boston

Fri, 11/21, 4:15 pm — Voices from the Past: Introducing Historical Letters to Elementary Students with Sam Rubin and Esther Kohn of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

Sat, 11/22, 8 am — You’re the Curator: Creating a Historical Exhibit Using Multiple Literacies with Mira Cohen of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library

Sat, 11/22, 10:10 am — Investigating the Arts as a Civic Language with Alyssa Liles-Amponsah of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

Sat, 11/22, 3:35 pm — Prioritizing the Federal Budget: A Kennedy Library Simulation for Students with Nina Tisch of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum



For those of you in the DC area, please join us at our Educators’ Open House on Thursday, November 13 from 5:30–7:30 pm at the National Archives Museum in Washington, D.C.

Come spend the evening and find out more about what we offer for you and your classroom!

No pre-registration is required. Light refreshments will be served. Please bring your colleagues along!

Ed Open House flyer 2014

NARA Educators’ Open House flyer 2014–Download and Print



Today’s post comes from Esther Kohn, education specialist at the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation.

The John F. Kennedy Library Foundation invites U.S. high school students to write an essay on an act of political courage by a U.S. elected official who served during or after 1956. The deadline for submissions to the Profile in Courage Essay Contest is January 5, 2015.Profiles in Courage Paperback Edition

In his 1956 book Profiles in Courage, John F. Kennedy recounted the stories of eight U.S. senators who faced dire consequences for standing up for the public good. Ostracized, rejected by voters, and even physically attacked, the elected officials in Kennedy’s Pulitzer prize-winning book put politics aside to do what they believed was right for the country.

A “Profile in Courage” essay is a carefully researched recounting of a story: the story of how an elected official risked his or her career to take a stand based on the dictates of the public good, rather than the dictates of polls, interest groups, or even constituents. The contest challenges high school students to discover new “profiles in courage,” and to research and write about acts of political courage that occurred after the 1956 publication of Kennedy’s Profiles in Courage.

The Profile in Courage Essay Contest requires young people today to grapple with big ideas:  How did Kennedy define political courage? Which public figures have demonstrated political courage? Which local, state, and national elected officials have risked their careers to take a stand for what is right?

Visit the John F. Kennedy Library website for contest information, eligibility and requirements, prize information, judging criteria, curriculum ideas, past winning essays, and more.



Have you ever wondered where to look for Native American research materials for yourself or your students?  Do you sometimes need an interesting activity to help you engage your students in the history of Indigenous America?

This year we’ve been developing material specifically for you!

Researching American Indians Page

American Indian Nations in the United States were originally independent of the Federal government and treated as foreign nations.  (Until 1823, first the English and then the American governments even required anyone passing over Native American territory to acquire a passport.)

This changed when, in 1831, Justice John Marshall1 declared American Indian communities to thereafter be treated as “domestic, dependent, Nations.”  This placed tribal jurisdiction directly under the U.S. Government but not subject to state, county, or territorial governments.  Because of this unique relationship to the Federal Government, thousands upon thousands of important records are held by the National Archives (whose job it is to preserve permanently valuable records of the Federal Government) relating to American Indians.  These documents, photographs, and other primary sources are scattered throughout the records of over 90 different federal agencies, but the majority are in the records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

For the past 18 months, many archivists, exhibit specialists and educators at the National Archives have been writing instructional material to help lead you to documents specifically related to these records.  Within the last month, we’ve created new pages to help you and your students find materials related to American Indians both in our main online catalog and in person at National Archives research facilities.

Photograph of Navajo Indian Code Talkers Henry Bake and George Kirk, 12/1943

Photograph of Navajo Indian Code Talkers Henry Bake and George Kirk, 12/1943

We share interesting articles about a wealth of American Indian subjects, such as:

We include resources and information for K-12 teachers and students as well as special pages of instruction for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students.

Indian Nations vs. Settlers on the American Frontier

The K-12 page describes and leads students and teachers to specialized pages on DocsTeach.org. This DocsTeach activity, to use in class or as homework, can be found at http://docsteach.org/activities/12791/detail

In addition to instructional material, a special list can help you navigate the extremely complicated process of locating Bureau of Indian Affairs records for tribes within a specific state.  And you can even locate records from various Bureau of Indian Affairs’ boarding and day schools.

General view of buildings, Rocky Boy Agency, Montana Chippewa, 1936

General view of buildings, Rocky Boy Agency, Montana Chippewa, 1936

We haven’t yet included a list leading to records for particular Indian tribes, but we hope to in the near future.

 

 

1 U.S. Supreme Court, Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831).  

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