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The Documents Behind Twelve Years a Slave

by on November 5, 2013


Today’s post comes from Kris McIntosh, volunteer at the National Archives at Fort Worth, and retired Fort Worth I.S.D. U.S. history teacher.

The new movie, Twelve Years a Slave, released nationwide last Friday, November 1st, is based on Solomon Northup’s 1853 autobiography. Northup, a free man of color, was kidnapped and sold into slavery.  Part of Northup’s amazing story can be authenticated by documents found in the National Archives.

First, have students check the 1840 federal census to find Northup living in upstate New York as a free person of color.

Census page from Saratoga Springs, including Solomon Northup, a free man of color, and his family

Census page from Saratoga Springs, including Solomon Northup, a free man of color, and his family (line 12). Click on the image to enlarge it. You can also find it on DocsTeach, our online tool for teaching with documents.

Next, have students analyze the most interesting and compelling document, the slave manifest for the Brig Orleans, which proves Northup was sold into slavery.  In 1787 the nation’s founding fathers had written into the U.S. Constitution that Congress would not be able to ban the importation of slaves before 1808. A March 2, 1807 Act of Congress—effective in 1808—outlawed foreign importation of slaves. Slave manifests that documented each slave’s name, sex, age, and color were then required.  The manifests were checked and signed by customs officials at the port of debarkation and again at the port of destination.  They were meant to ensure that slave traders transporting slaves by ship among U.S. ports were not in violation of the law.

Slave Manifest for the Brig Orleans, including Solomon Northup, listed as Plat Hamilton (#33).

Slave Manifest for the Brig Orleans, including Solomon Northup, listed as Plat Hamilton (#33). Click on the image to enlarge it. You can also find it on DocsTeach.

When slaves were forced into the hull of the Brig Orleans on April 27, 1841, the Port of Richmond collector Thomas Nelson approved the slave manifest. When the ship docked in New Orleans on May 24, 1841, the inspector matched Solomon Northup’s description to the name Plat Hamilton. Just like that, Solomon Northup the free man of color ceased to exist.

Northup was transported on the Brig Orleans with approximately forty other slaves to New Orleans where he was later sold to Edwin Epps, who owned a cotton plantation in the Louisiana Red River area.  Northup was enslaved for the next twelve years. All rights and privileges that come with freedom, beginning with his given name, were stripped away from him.

Finally, explore the 1850 federal census slave schedule for Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana.  Could Solomon possibly match the description of one of the slaves living on the Edwin Epps plantation?

Census page from the Parish of Avoyelles on October 2, 1850, including Edwin Epps and a list of his slaves.

Census page from the Parish of Avoyelles on October 2, 1850, including Edwin Epps and a list of his slaves. Click on the image to enlarge it. You can also find it on DocsTeach.

If you will be bringing students to see the film, study these documents beforehand to become familiar with the documented facts.  Afterward, discuss whether the documents mentioned support the movie, or if the movie script differs from the evidence provided in the documents.

For an opportunity to analyze the documents further and read excerpts from Northup’s autobiography, students can engage in the DocsTeach activity “Twelve Years a Slave.” (Teaching instructions are also available.)

By the time Solomon Northup was freed and returned to his family, the Fugitive Slave Law had gone into effect. What would prevent Solomon or other members of his family from being kidnapped and sold into slavery?

Using primary sources such as these in the classroom allows students to analyze, interpret, infer, compare, sequence and draw conclusions.  Primary sources—not just movies—create powerful images for students to remember and get hooked on history!


Comments

Mrs. Breed November 5, 2013 at 8:13 pm

Looks like a great activity. Thank you for sharing.

David A. Streat November 6, 2013 at 7:43 am

Very enlightening and informative. While, I have not seen the movie yet, I plan to take my 14 year-old daughter to see it later this month.

Vera Williams November 6, 2013 at 1:47 pm

Thank you for the information from the National Archives on my Great, Great, Great Grandfather Solomon Northup. A co-worker here at the Archives discovered and posted on the ICN the ship’s manifest where he was transported to Louisiana as Plat Hamilton, however I had not see the census documents!

Make sure you see the movie! It is a story on slavery, a love story and provides an outstanding example of perservance!

Vera Williams

Education Updates » Kidnapping of Free People of Color November 12, 2013 at 3:12 pm

[…] African Americans in the north who were moved south and forced into slavery. Last week we shared The Documents Behind Twelve Years a Slave, the story of Solomon Northup’s kidnapping into slavery. The newly released movie Twelve Years a […]

Stephanie December 17, 2013 at 9:07 am

You can learn more about National Archives employee Vera Williams’s family connection to Solomon Northup on our Pieces of History blog.

Ashleigh Browne January 4, 2014 at 8:20 pm

Note to David A. Streat,

I have just watched the movie, it is not something you should be taking your 14 year old daughter to see. It is extremely graphic and violent.
Please watch yourself and make your own judgement before showing it to children.

Sam B January 22, 2014 at 4:09 pm

I have just seen the movie ,and also agree that some scenes of violence are to graphic for young people, A brilliant, yet shocking portrayal of the slave trade, in all it’s inhumanity.
A must see to all for the historic merits. But I would not watch the film as entertainment.

All of you people shut up! It was a great movie! March 13, 2014 at 3:16 pm

All of you people shut up! It was a great movie!

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