Have you ever wondered where to look for Native American research materials for yourself or your students? Do you sometimes need an interesting activity to help you engage your students in the history of Indigenous America?
This year we’ve been developing material specifically for you!
American Indian Nations in the United States were originally independent of the Federal government and treated as foreign nations. (Until 1823, first the English and then the American governments even required anyone passing over Native American territory to acquire a passport.)
This changed when, in 1831, Justice John Marshall1 declared American Indian communities to thereafter be treated as “domestic, dependent, Nations.” This placed tribal jurisdiction directly under the U.S. Government but not subject to state, county, or territorial governments. Because of this unique relationship to the Federal Government, thousands upon thousands of important records are held by the National Archives (whose job it is to preserve permanently valuable records of the Federal Government) relating to American Indians. These documents, photographs, and other primary sources are scattered throughout the records of over 90 different federal agencies, but the majority are in the records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
For the past 18 months, many archivists, exhibit specialists and educators at the National Archives have been writing instructional material to help lead you to documents specifically related to these records. Within the last month, we’ve created new pages to help you and your students find materials related to American Indians both in our main online catalog and in person at National Archives research facilities.
Photograph of Navajo Indian Code Talkers Henry Bake and George Kirk, 12/1943
We share interesting articles about a wealth of American Indian subjects, such as:
The following is excerpted from the 2015 National History Day (NHD) Theme Book article “From Camp David to the Carter Center: Leadership and Legacy in the Life of America’s 39th President,” by Kahlil Chism, education specialist at the Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum. The full article, primary sources, and suggested teaching activities can be downloaded from the NHD website.
In September 1978, President Jimmy Carter accomplished one of the most momentous feats of U.S. foreign policy ever attempted—brokering peace between two Middle Eastern countries that had been at war for nearly 30 years. While American presidents from Harry Truman through Richard Nixon had faced Mid-East region crises while in office, President Carter was the first to make an effort at establishing a preemptive peace between two of that region’s major powers.
Menahem Begin, Jimmy Carter and Anwar Sadat meet during the Camp David Summit., 9/7/1978, From the Carter White House Photographs Collection, Jimmy Carter Library, National Archives Identifier 181106.
Carter put his political reputation on the line by inviting Mohammed Anwar al Sadat, president of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and Prime Minister of the State of Israel Menachem Begin to come to Camp David for a face-to-face summit. The result of that summit was the Camp David Accords, which were signed on September 17, 1978.
[In 1978], the Nobel Peace Prize was jointly awarded—a first in the 80-year history of the prize—to Sadat and Begin. And in 2002 Jimmy Carter also received the Nobel Peace Prize “for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development.”1 The Nobel Committee noted that “Carter’s mediation was a vital contribution to the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt, in itself a great enough achievement to qualify for the Nobel Peace Prize.”2
It stands to reason then that in 1981, as former President Carter was preparing to chart a course for his future, the success of the Camp David summit would serve as the direct inspiration for the organization that will become his legacy, The Carter Center.
By January 1981, two decades before he was honored by the Nobel Committee, 56-year-old Carter found himself among the pantheon of America’s youngest former presidents. He spent most of that year writing his memoir, Keeping Faith, planning his presidential library, and pursuing his hobbies of woodworking and watercolors.
But it wasn’t enough. “I had the same kind of thoughts about alleviating tensions in the troubled areas of the world,” he noted in his book, “promoting human rights, enhancing environmental quality, and pursuing other goals that were important to me. These were hazy ideas at best, but they gave us something to anticipate which could be exciting and challenging during the years ahead.”3
In January 1982, the former president had an epiphany. “One night I woke up and Jimmy was sitting straight up in bed,” Mrs. Carter recalled….‘What’s the matter?’ I asked. ‘I know what we can do at the library,’ he said. ‘We can develop a place to help people who want to resolve disputes….If there had been such a place, I wouldn’t have had to take Begin and Sadat to Camp David.’”4
Carter was the first former president to start a nonprofit organization upon leaving office. The Carter Center was founded in 1982, in partnership with Emory University, to advance peace and health worldwide. A nongovernmental organization, the Center has helped to improve life for people in more than 70 countries by advancing democracy, human rights, and economic opportunity; preventing diseases; improving mental health care; teaching farmers to increase crop production; and resolving conflicts.5
Today’s post comes from Chelsea Tremblay, social media intern in our Education and Public Programs division.
In the mid 1800’s, the Charles W. Morgan set sail in search of one thing: the mighty whale. The last wooden whaling ship in the United States, the Morgan braved the ocean’s rough waters for treasures such as whale bones and oils—not to mention the thousands of dollars seamen earned from these goods.
Whaling is a major part of history! The once popular practice offers numerous windows into the past in various ways: music (sea shanties), art (scrimshaw, knots), mathematics (measurement, navigation), science (whales, oceans, man’s impact on nature), and geography.
Now you can peek into the past using DocsTeach where 19 documents about the Charles W. Morgan whaling ship were just added!
Search through these records to learn about the goods seamen brought back from their trips. In this merchandise log from 1874, the crew brought back 6,080 gallons of whale oil! Whale oil was heavily in demand at the time because it was used to light lamps and make candles. Sperm whale candles (or spermaceti) are actually said to be to be the brightest, purest candles.
Ask your students: Can you determine how much money they earned from all of that oil?
These documents can also teach us a bit more about life at sea. Sure, the salty sea breeze rustling through your hair and having nothing but the horizon ahead seems like a dream. However, life as a whaling crew member wasn’t quite so romantic. Here you can find the names of two men who deserted the Charles W. Morgan when it made port in May of 1874.
In this collection of new records you can also find discharge certificates and even death certificates.
Some ideas for incorporating these documents in the classroom are:
Today’s post comes from Renee Rhodes, social media intern in our Education and Public Programs division.
We have education programs coming up at our locations around the country and at the annual NCSS conference in Boston. Join us!
Our calendar of events for December is coming soon!
(Simi Valley, CA) Lebanon, Syria and Iraq: Roots of Current Conflict – November 1, 10 am – 3:30 pm
Teacher workshop hosted at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. RSVP to email@example.com
(New York, NY) Navigating the Newness: Improving Content, Pedagogy and Professionalism – November 4, 7:30 am – 3 pm
The National Archives at New York City and partner presents on DocsTeach and professional development activities. Register.
(Washington, DC) Making Their Mark Adult Education Workshop Series: Meet the Pen Doctor - November 5, 5:30 – 7:30 pm
A hands-on workshop in conjunction with the “Making Their Mark” exhibit at the National Archives Museum.
(West Branch, IA) Getting Started on Research - November 7 10 am – 12 pm.
National History Day research with the staff at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum. Topics will include internet research, primary and secondary sources, process papers, researching, bibliographies, and more!
(Online & College Station, TX) “Texas A&M University Chemistry Road Show” – Thursday, November 13, 10:30-11:30 am and 12:30- 1:30 pm
(Washington, DC) Educators’ Open House – Thursday, November 13, 5:30–7:30 pm
After-hours exhibits at the National Archives museum, light refreshments, and information about resources, workshops, DocsTeach, NHD, and more! Email firstname.lastname@example.org RE: “Educators’ Open House” for more info.
(Washington, DC) Facilitated Interactive Table for Teens - Friday, November 14, 4 – 4:45 pm
(Philadelphia, PA) NHD Philly Teacher Workshop “Life in a Jar: The Irena Sendler Project” – Saturday, November 15, 11 am
At the National Museum of American Jewish History, with lunch, led by: the teacher who supervised this initial NHD Project, National Archives Education Specialist Ang Reidell, and the museum’s education outreach manager, Vera Da Vinci. Email email@example.com RE: “Life in a Jar” for more info.
(Riverside, CA) National History Day Learning Lab – November 15, 9 am to 2 pm
The National Archives at Riverside and partners, with presentations, workshops, and archivist meetings to help with NHD projects on the CSU Fullerton Campus. Archivist appointments 10:30 am–2 pm. Registration limited to 100 students.
(Online & College Station, TX) “A Thanksgiving Parade: The Historical Tapestry of Gratitude” – November 20, 10:30-11:30 am & 12:30- 1:30 pm
Remotely control a tour of The George Bush Presidential Library World War II exhibit by driving VGO Robot “Millie,” named after the First Dog of the 41st Bush Administration. Free 45-minute virtual tours with an Education Volunteer are available Tuesdays and Wednesdays, with prior registration.
(Washington, DC) Boeing Learning Center - Monday–Saturday, 10 am – 3 pm
Announcing the first ever National Archives’ Educators’ Open House! Come spend the evening with your colleagues at the National Archives Building to find out more about what we offer for you and your classroom.
Thursday, November 13, 2014
National Archives Building
NARA Education Specialists will be on hand all evening to answer questions, chat, and share information about National Archives resources. In addition, our Education Specialists will be conducting several short demonstrations of our online and distance learning opportunities, award winning website DocsTeach.org, professional development opportunities, and much more.
Educators can find out about:
Primarily Teaching, NARA’s annual professional development workshop for teachers
We have provided links to other websites because they have information that may interest you. Links are not an endorsement by the National Archives of the opinions, products, or services presented on these sites, or any sites linked to it. The National Archives is not responsible for the legality or accuracy of information on these sites, or for any costs incurred while using these sites.