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Executive Orders 9980 and 9981: Ending segregation in the Armed Forces and the Federal workforce

Today’s blog post comes from curator Jennifer Johnson and education and exhibit specialist Michael Hussey. Executive Orders 9980 and  9981 are on display in the National Archives Museum. See EO 9980 until January 5, 1015, in “Making Their Mark: Stories Through Signatures” in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery and EO 9981 until June 17, 2014, in “Records of Rights” in the David M. Rubenstein Gallery

“Recent events in the United States and abroad have made us realize that it is more important today than ever before to insure that all Americans enjoy these rights. When I say all Americans I mean all Americans…Our National Government must show the way.” President Truman, in a speech to the NAACP, June 29, 1947

Without Congress’s blessing, the executive branch or the President of the United States can issue a Presidential Proclamation or an Executive Order. Both carry the force of law.

Executive orders, known as decrees in other countries, are issued to manage the Federal government. Proclamations are aimed outside the Federal government and have been issued for things from declaring war as President Wilson did with Proclamation #1364 to declaring Thanksgiving a holiday as George Washington did when he issued Presidential Proclamation #1.

President Truman, the first President to speak to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), had based part of his platform … [ Read all ]

Two more sleepover opportunities at the National Archives!

Due to the popularity of the inaugural Rotunda sleepover in January, the National Archives and the Foundation for the National Archives (FNA) have partnered to host summer and fall sleepovers for children 8 to 12 years old. The sleepovers are scheduled for August 2 and October 18.

The Foundation is giving away 3 free tickets–enter the drawing before May 19!

One hundred children and parents will have a chance to explore our documents in fun and educational ways before rolling out their sleeping bags to spend the night in the Rotunda with the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights.

This summer’s sleepover theme is “Explorers Night,” and will feature hands-on activities to help young explorers investigate–through music, chats with historical figures, games, and more–some of the greatest adventures of all time. Campers will journey to the Arctic, visit outer space, and discover the American West as they explore the National Archives Museum’s treasured records.

“Our first-ever sleepover in January was incredibly popular, drawing families from around the country–many of whom had never visited the National Archives before,” said Archivist David S. Ferriero. “The demand for tickets was so high and the response so positive that we decided to invite more families during summer vacation and again in the fall. This is a great way to create a meaningful experience for families, to improve civics education, and … [ Read all ]

Now on display: A letter from a mother

Today’s blog post comes from curator Alice Kamps. This featured document will be on display from May 9 to May 21.

On May 9, 1914, President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation declaring the second Sunday in May a holiday for the “public expression of love and reverence for the mothers of our country.”

To commemorate the centennial of the first national observance of Mother’s Day, this exhibit at the National Archives displays just one of hundreds of thousands of letters written by mothers seeking advice from the Children’s Bureau, a Federal Government office established in 1912 to promote the well-being of mothers and their children.

Even 100 years ago, these letter writers wondered: Is it possible to balance the demands of work and motherhood?

With three children under the age of four, and without “conveniences and modern utilities,” Mrs. Neil Williams was at the end of her rope. If anyone could help her, surely it was Julia Lathrop, Director of the Children’s Bureau.

In heartfelt language, Mrs. Williams wrote to Ms. Lathrop in 1920 to ask how to manage “all these scientific and hygienic duties for babies,” keep up with housework, and love and nurture her children. “I love them until it hurts,” she explained, “and know that, when they are out of their babyhood, I can never forgive myself for not making more … [ Read all ]

Great programs for kids at the National Archives!

Take your family to the Constitution-in-Action Family Learning Lab this spring or summer!

Families are invited to take on the role of researchers and archivists for a day. During a two–hour simulation, they will help the President and Bob, his Communications Director, prepare for a special press conference. Families will work together to locate and analyze facsimile documents and find the connection each document has to the Constitution.

This is a great way to explore American history, learn more about the National Archives, and gain a greater understanding of the role the Constitution plays in our daily lives.

Dates and Times:

Tuesday, April 15 at 10:00-12:00 and 2:00-4:00
Thursday, July 10 at 10:00-12:00 and 2:00-4:00
Wednesday, July 23 at 10:00-12:00 and 2:00-4:00
Tuesday, July 29 at 10:00-12:00 and 2:00-4:00

To register please go to http://www.archivesfoundation.org/event/constitution-action-learning-lab-family-program/… [ Read all ]

They “Leaned In” and took action in federal courts

Happy Women’s History Month! Today’s blog post comes from Kristina Jarosik, education specialist at the National Archives at Chicago.

Recently, two powerful women in the Silicon Valley, (Sheryl Sandberg of Facebook and author of Lean In: Women Work and the Will to Lead and Marissa Meyer, CEO of Yahoo) provided the media and the public the opportunity to re-examine the role of women in the workplace. These exchanges, the dawn of Women’s History Month, and the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Civil Rights Act encouraged us to step back “historically” and to look in our stacks for stories of women fighting for equality in the workplace through the federal courts.

We discovered several cases. Alice Peurala’s is one.

As a single parent working night shifts at U.S. Steel’s South Works in southeast Chicago in the 1950s, Alice Peurala wanted a day job. She heard that product testers in the Metallurgical Division had this appealing schedule. But these positions were not posted, as others were, for bidding.

In 1967 (after the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act), a male colleague that Alice had trained was moved up to be a product tester after only four years. Just before he started, she called the hiring director and inquired about being considered for one of these jobs. His response, “No, we don’t want any women on these jobs.”… [ Read all ]