Archive for '- Great Depression'
As Prohibition commenced in 1920, progressives and temperance activists envisioned an age of moral and social reform. But over the next decade, the “noble experiment” produced crime, violence, and a flourishing illegal liquor trade.
The roots of Prohibition date back to the mid-19th century, when the American Temperance Society and the Women’s Christian Temperance League initiated the “dry” movement. In 1917, Congress passed a resolution calling for a constitutional amendment to implement nationwide Prohibition.
After the 18th Amendment was ratified in 1919, Congress followed with the National Prohibition Act. Commonly referred to as the Volstead Act, the legislation outlawed the production, distribution, and transportation of alcohol. Prohibition officially went into effect on January 16, 1920.
But while reformers rejoiced, famous gangsters such as Al Capone capitalized and profited from the illegal alcohol market.
From Los Angeles to Chicago to New York, organized crime syndicates supplied speakeasies and underground establishments with large quantities of beer and liquor. These complex bootlegging operations used rivers and waterways to smuggle alcohol across state lines. Eventually, other criminal enterprises expanded and diversified from the bootlegging profits.
As organized crime syndicates grew throughout the Prohibition era, territorial disputes often transformed America’s cities into violent battlegrounds. Homicides, burglaries, and assaults consequently increased significantly between 1920 and 1933.… [ Read all ]
Posted by Gregory Marose on January 17, 2012, under - Great Depression, - Presidents.
Tags: 18th Amendment, 21st Amendment, Al Capone, American Temperance Society, bootlegging, December 5 1933, FDR, gangster, National Prohibition Act, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Prohibition, Volstead Act, Women’s Christian Temperance League
As 2011 draws to a close, so does our exhibit “What’s Cooking, Uncle Sam?” which will end on January 3, 2012.
It’s been a great year for food here at the National Archives. We’ve had amazing guests come and speak, including Chef José Andrés, our neighbor and Chief Culinary Adviser for the exhibit; Chef Roland Mesnier, former White House pastry chef; Diana Kennedy, guru of Mexican food; Ann Harvey Yonkers, co-director of FRESHFARM markets; Jessica B. Harris, author of High on the Hog; and George Motz, author of Hamburger America.
And of course, we’ve been writing about food-related records in the National Archives almost every Wednesday since the exhibit opened. We thought it would be fun to look back at the Top Ten Food Records in honor of this exhibit. Since we couldn’t include all of the records, we chose the ones that were most striking, strange, or popular.
Here’s our Top Ten list of memorable food records!
TEN: My coworker was constantly amused by this label for “Grains of Health,” which is profuse in its praise but vague in its description of these grains might actually be. Her favorite line: “It is so prepared that the strongest and the most delicate person may drink it at the same table.”
NINE: “Pig Cafeteria” is a … [ Read all ]
Posted by Hilary on December 28, 2011, under - Great Depression, - The 1960s, - World War II, Recipes, Unusual documents, What's Cooking Wednesdays.
Tags: Alice Kamps, Ann Harvey Yonkers, B1, butter, candy, chef, crimes against butter, Diana Kennedy, Eisenhower, exploding ketchup, food groups, FRESHFARM Markets, George Motz, Grains of Health, guest speakers, Hamburger America, High on the Hog, Jessica B. Harris, Jose Andres, Kansas City, ketchup, magarine, Nebraska, oleo gang, pastry chef, Pig Cafeteria, poison, Potatriots, Queen Elizabeth, Queen's Scones, Roland Mesnier, scribd.com, Top Ten, USDA, vitamin, vitamin donuts, wedding, whale, Wild West, WWII
Have you visited our exhibit “What’s Cooking, Uncle Sam?” Don’t wait! The exhibit closes on January 3, 2012.
Are you in a sugar coma yet? If not, there’s still time to make some sweet desserts straight from the records of the National Archives.
These favorite cookie recipes (below) come from the 1966 Forest Service Fire Lookout Cookbook, part of the holdings of the National Archives at Seattle. They look pretty delicious—let us know if you try any of them! Lucky for you, we are not sharing the Forest Service’s recipe for peanut butter and mayonnaise sandwiches topped with grated carrot.
These aren’t the only holiday-ready recipes in the National Archives. Americans love their sweets and we’ve got lots of dessert recipes. Even during hard times, when sugar was rationed to six tablespoons per day, Americans found ways to cook something sweet. In 1918, the U.S. Food Administration recommended using “molasses, corn syrup, maple syrup, glucose, maple sugar, corn sugar, honey, raisins, dates or figs.” A recipe for “War Time Strawberry Shortcake” uses three cups of strawberries but only three tablespoons of sugar.
In the records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is a recipe for “Fruit Cake,” published in Aunt Sammy’s Radio Recipes, a popular book for housewives who listened to the radio … [ Read all ]
Posted by Hilary on December 21, 2011, under - Great Depression, - World War I, - World War II, Recipes, What's Cooking Wednesdays.
Tags: Aunt Sammy, cookbook, cookies, desserts, Forest Service Fire Lookout Cookbook, holidays, Inexpensive Christmas Cake, Peanut Brittle, Praline Ice Cream Bombe, seattle, sugar, sweets, USDA
Although the National Archives Building was nearly completed in 1935, the Rotunda sat empty.
Then, on December 13, 1952, an armored Marine Corps personnel carrier made its way down Constitution Avenue, accompanied by two light tanks, four servicemen carrying submachine guns, and a motorcycle escort. A color guard, ceremonial troops, the Army Band, and the Air Force Drum and Bugle Corps were also part of the procession. Members of all the military branches lined the street.
Inside the personnel carrier were six parchment documents. The records were in helium-filled glass cases packed inside wooden crates resting on mattresses.
The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were going to the National Archives.
In 1926, $1 million was appropriated for a national archives building, and in 1930 President Hoover appointed an Advisory Committee for the National Archives to draw up specifications for the building. John Russell Pope was selected as architect, and a year later, ground was broken. By 1933, the cornerstone of the building had been put in place by President Herbert Hoover. Staff were working in the unfinished building by 1935.
But despite this flurry of activity, the vault-like building did not house the founding documents that we call the “Charters of Freedom.”
The documents had been shuttled around to various buildings for various reasons. They started out in the Department of State, and as the capital moved … [ Read all ]
Posted by Hilary on December 13, 2011, under - Constitution, - Great Depression, - Presidents, News and Events, preservation.
Tags: 1952, bill of rights, Constitution, December 13, declaration of independence, President Hoover, Rotunda
We’ve got lots of artists in the building today. If you visit the National Archives Building from December 2 to 6, you can partake of history and do your Christmas shopping and support local artists and support the programs of the National Archives!
The holiday fair is officially titled “The Way We Worked” American Artisans Fair. Local area artists were invited to participate. Chris DerDerian, the manager of the National Archives Shop, was inspired by the New Deal programs that put artists to work during the Great Depression. Between 1935 and 1943, citizens held 8 million jobs through the Works Progress Administration (WPA). While the WPA administered large projects like the creation of roads, it also administered projects in the arts.
“This first annual fair is to encourage visitors to the National Archives to support the work of today’s American artisans as they shop for meaningful contemporary gifts celebrating American history this holiday season,” DerDerian said.
I was curious about what exactly artists were hired to do during the 1930s, so I did a quick search in our Online Public Access database and discovered this delightful piece of administrative reporting from 1940: Report of WPA Activities of the Golden Gate International Exposition.
If you … [ Read all ]
Posted by Hilary on December 2, 2011, under - Great Depression, Unusual documents.
Tags: 1930s, 1940, American Artisans Fair, artists, Chris DerDerian, craftsmen, Golden Gate Bridge, great depression, Leonardo da Vinci, new deal, Online Public Access, The Way We Worked, upcycling, Works Progress Administration, WPA