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In 1973 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) transferred to the National Archives approximately 31,000 negatives and corresponding prints created by the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) to document economic recovery in Western Europe after World War II under the Marshall Plan. After processing, this accession became series 286-MP “Marshall Plan Programs, Exhibits, and Personnel, 1948-1967” (National Archives Identifier 541771). During processing it was discovered that the French portion of the file was missing, which staff presumed would be an extensive and important part of the series. After consulting with the USAID, the exact location of the file was not determined and remained a mystery for over 10 years.

286-MP_dossierChange of Holdings Report for Marshall Plan Accession

 

This started a 40 year search to locate and eventually recover the alienated French file. In 1984, researcher Linda Christenson, who was doing research for a Marshall Plan documentary for the Marshall Foundation, discovered the lost file in the hands of a commercial photography company in Paris. The company had started maintaining and managing the collection at an offsite U.S. Embassy facility in 1971 after the photographic section at the U.S. Embassy closed and over the next 32 years moved the collection several times.  Part of the agreement between the ECA and the French company included providing free reproductions to the ECA, the US Embassy in Paris, and later the United States Information Agency (USIA).  From 1984 until 2013, the National Archives was unsuccessful in retrieving the files, but through the hard work of NARA’s Archival Recovery Team, Ed McCarter (formerly of the Still Picture Branch), Jeff Landou (Office of General Counsel), and Frank Cordes (National Archives Foundation) who acted as the French interpreter, and the support of the Marshall Foundation in Lexington, Virginia and the U.S. State Department and U.S. Embassy in Paris, the owner of the commercial company agreed to transfer the collection to the National Archives.  In June 2013, the NARA team traveled to Paris to survey and box up the collection for transport back to the United States. During pack up it was discovered that not only did the collection contain the French Marshall Plan photographs marked FRA, but a set of Marshall Plan photographs marked PAR for Paris, which also contains some images created and/or acquired by the United States Information Service (USIS) in Paris.

 

DSC_0025June 13, 2013. Recovery effort in Paris. View of the storage facility showing the drawers in which the Marshall Plan negatives were stored.
DSC_0026June 13, 2013. Recovery effort in Paris. View of the right side of the storage facility showing the larger file cabinets and drawers in which the Marshall Plan negatives were stored.

 

The boxes arrived at Archives II in College Park, MD in July 2013 and almost immediately three projects were started to digitize the negatives and corresponding indexes and caption lists, but only after the negatives were properly arranged and re-housed by Still Picture staff member Chanel Sutton. In the fall of 2013 the first batches of negatives were sent to the National Archives Photographic Lab for scanning using the appropriate tonal corrections. The scanning (22,913 negatives) and subsequent quality control work took 15-months to complete. The photographic lab had a rotating team of photographic technicians working on the project. The initial pilot workflow for the project was devised by Sheri Hill with Cecilia Epstein coordinating the workflow and PT Corrigan performing quality control on all batches. Most of the scanning and photographic adjustments were done by Amy Young, Cecilia Epstein, Jerry Thompson, Mimi Shade, Roscoe George, and Sheri Hill with assistance from student employee Chantise Hawkins and volunteer Jordan Murek. Also pitching in when workloads permitted were Carolyn Anderson, Carlita Earl, Lywanne Young, and Rebecca Sullivan.

Mimi_scanningStaff member Mimi Shade scans Marshall Plan negatives.

 

Scanning of the caption lists (2,000 pages of image-level captions), referred to by the French company as the “bibles”, also began in the fall of 2013. The work was performed by NARA’s Volunteer Office with volunteer Harry Kidd organizing the project. Scanning was performed by Harry and Denise Lynch.  At the same time, former Still Picture staff member, Pat Woolaver, created a spreadsheet derived from information in the subject index that precedes the image level captions.  This spreadsheet provides alphabetical access to the images at a group level rather than at the item level.  All of this data is currently being used to create file unit level descriptions for online access to the scanned images.

After completion of the scanning and index work, the Still Picture Branch finished processing of the original negatives along with the original caption lists, indexes and newly created digital images. This work not only included incorporating the negatives into the existing series and updating the series description, but performing the initial prep work needed on the index metadata and scans for transfer to the Digital Public Access Branch (VEO) for upload into the catalog. This work was mostly performed by former Still Picture staff member Julie Stoner. Final prep work and upload into the catalog is currently being performed by Gary H. Stern in VEO.

286-MP-fra-03127Local Identifier: 286-MP-FRA-3127, “The three main personalities at the opening ceremony [New Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe  (SHAPE) Headquarters in France] were (left to right) General Eisenhower, President Vincent Auriol, and Jules Moch, Minister of Defense”, July 23, 1951.
286-MP-fra-04537Local Identifier: 286-MP-FRA-4537, “Draped with French and American Flags, a 155mm. self-propelled gun, representing the millionth ton of aid to France, is unloaded from the “American Shipper” at Cherbourg.” May 9, 1952.
286-MP-par-00248Local Identifier: 286-MP-PAR-248, “This is Europe” Broadcasts. In a series of thirteen half-hour broadcasts , the radio section of the ECA/OSR, in co-operation with Tele-Radio-Cine in Paris, presented some of the recovery story of the Marshall Plan countries.  “Anders Borie, film star and singer, added three of Sweden’s current hit songs to the program devoted to this country” ca. 1949.

Mapping Appomattox

by on April 7, 2015


Yesterday, in honor of the 150th anniversary of the event, Mark Meader told us how the Civil War came to an end at Appomattox Court House. Today, we have a series of maps that show the movements of troops in the area.

This post was written by Ellen Mulligan. Ellen is an Archivist in the Cartographic and Architectural Branch.

Maps of the Appomattox area of operations of the Army of the Potomac between March 29 and April 9, 1865 are filed among the Civil Works Map File of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, in Record Group 77. Included is a large scale manuscript map in two pieces, with the notation “Turned into Engineer Bureau by Brev. Col. W.H. Paine,” and a reduced size photoprocessed copy annotated in color to show headquarters and routes of march of the 2nd, 5th, 6th and 9th Corps in pursuit of the Rebel Army.

Click on the images below to open in a new window and zoom:

s-RG 77 CWMF G170-1

RG 77 CWMF G170-1

s-RG 77 CWMF G170-1-1

RG 77 CWMF G170-1-1

s-RG 77 CWMF G170-1-2

RG 77 CWMF G170-1-1

Maps of Area of Operations, Army of the Potomac March 29 to April 9, 1865. Civil Works Map File G-170-1. Record Group 77. NAID 7491454

A second copy of the map showing routes of march is also available among the Collection of Colonel W. H. Paine Civil War Maps. While the National Archives is the repository of the official records of the federal government of the United States, donated materials have occasionally been accepted as “appropriate for preservation by the government as evidence of its organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures and transactions.”

Among these donated materials are the papers of William Henry Paine, a topographical engineer who served as assistant to the Chief of Topographical Engineers, Army of the Potomac, from January 1863 to June 1865. Maj. Gen. G. K. Warren wrote of Paine’s service: “To his previous great knowledge of the country he added by constant laborious and oftentimes daring reconnaissances, and applied it in unfailing efforts to correct our imperfect maps and in guiding our columns on the marches night and day along the secret paths he had discovered.” (quoted in A Guide to Civil War Maps in the National Archives, 2nd Edition 1986, p.68).

Here, the map is accompanied by three copies of a map showing the retreat of the Confederate Army from Richmond and Petersburg and its capture by U.S. forces under Lt. Gen. U.S. Grant, engraved for publication in “Grant and his Campaigns.” These copies show edits made for printing, including a change from Rebel Army to Confederate Army.

s-Paine C-6-3Paine C-6-3

Paine C-6-4

Paine C-6-4

Paine C-6-5a

Paine C-6-5a

Paine C-6-5b

Paine C-6-5b

Maps from the Collection of Colonel W. H. Paine Civil War Maps, NAID 7368933



This post was written by Mark Meader. Mark is an Archives Specialist with the Motion Picture, Sound and Video branch. He participated in historical reenactments for over forty years, including over twenty years as a Union private in Civil War reenactments.

People often think of history as just names, dates, places where “something” happened a long time ago. They rarely think of the emotions that accompanied such events, emotions that made it so memorable that the participants could never forget what occurred at this place or that. So it was with a small Virginia hamlet that started out as Clover Hill Tavern, a stagecoach stop in 1819, and grew to become Appomattox Court House, the county seat of Appomattox County. It consisted of five houses, several businesses off the main street, and a court house. It is also the only town in the United States where one wholly American army surrendered to another.

s-111-BA-1895

Appomattox Court House, Virginia. 111-BA-1895.

Union General Ulysses Grant had a migraine. He had suffered from it off and on ever since his pursuit had begun of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s starving, threadbare Army of Northern Virginia, which had evacuated the defenses around Petersburg, Virginia on April 2, 1865. The 100,000 men of the Union Army of the Potomac had pursued the Confederates west where they hoped to obtain food and supplies and then join Confederate forces in North Carolina to keep the war going. Grant knew he had to prevent this to end the costly four-year Civil War. He had sent Lee messages offering terms of surrender, but Lee had only replied as to what these terms would be. Grant’s reply was to give little hope of prolonging the struggle, but to surrender Lee’s army to prevent the loss of another life. Then on the morning of April 9th a messenger from Lee presented a letter that asked for an interview in accordance with Grant’s offer. “I was still suffering with the sick headache; but the instant I saw the contents of the note I was cured,” he wrote in his memoirs.

Portrait

General Ulysses Grant. 111-B-4503 (NAID 528631)

General Robert E. Lee knew that from the moment his army evacuated the defenses around Petersburg on April 2nd his soldiers could not survive without plentiful food to recover from the months of starvation in the trenches. He had watched his gallant army win battle after battle, or survive defeats intact since May 1862 against odds that would have destroyed another force, but now he knew the end was near. There were only some 28,000 soldiers remaining in the Army of Northern Virginia, and they were heading west towards Appomattox where supply trains waited for them. If they reached them and were fed, he would point the army south towards Confederate General Joseph Johnston’s Army of the Tennessee in North Carolina. But Union Army cavalry under General Philip Sheridan got there first, captured and burnt the trains, and blocked the way. When word of this reached Lee’s headquarters he knew the end was near. He and Grant had exchanged letters on the subject of surrender, and Lee suggested a meeting between the lines. When news of the arrival of three Union Infantry Corps to further block the way reached Lee on the morning of April 9th, he realized the retreat of his beleaguered army had finally been halted. He stated the inevitable, with such emotions few men have ever known. “There is nothing left for me to do but to go and see General Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths” he said to his aide.

Landscape

The McLean House, where the Civil War ended. 111-B-6333 (NAID 530400)

Wilmer McLean can truly be said to have a war begin and end on his property. A wholesale grocer and a retired major in the Virginia Militia, he was too old to return to active duty in 1861, but on June 21 the Union Army attacked the Confederate forces near McLean’s Yorkshire Plantation in Manassas, Prince William County,Virginia. Fighting spilled over his property and a cannonball fired by Union artillery dropped into his fireplace. When the battle was over, McLean decided to move because his commercial activities of supplying sugar to the Confederacy were centered mainly in Southern Virginia, and the presence of the Union Army in Northern Virginia made his work next to impossible. He was also determined to remove his family from such a dangerous area where a combat experience could easily reoccur, endangering them and his property.

In the spring of 1863, McLean and his family moved 120 miles south to Appomattox County, Virginia near a small crossroads community called Appomattox Court House. But on April 9th, 1865, the war came again to knock on his front door when a messenger from General Robert E. Lee requested the use of McLean’s home to meet with General Ulysses S. Grant. McLean reluctantly agreed. There the two Generals and their aides met, and Lee surrendered his army to Grant in the parlor of McLean’s house, effectively ending the American Civil War. The generous terms allowed the Confederate officers to keep their side arms, and the soldiers to keep their horses, which they would need for the spring plowing. When Lee left to announce the surrender to his troops, officers of the Union Army entered McLean’s house and began to take souvenirs, tables, chairs, and various other furnishings that they could get, handing the protesting McLean money as they made off with his property. Later, a disgusted McLean is supposed to have said ‘The war began in my front yard and ended in my front parlor.”

McLean’s house is now part of Appomattox Court House National Historical Monument operated by the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Watch the footage below to see a historical reenactment staged for the 125th anniversary of the events at Appomattox Court House (see Reel 2 here).

Thanks to Laurel Macondray and Richard Green, who located the photos and films used in this post. Check back tomorrow for maps from the Cartographic Branch!


In an effort to provide information on recently declassified motion pictures and sound recordings the Motion Picture, Sound and Video Branch will publish a quarterly list of newly declassified records.

This quarter’s list consists of one film, MB-1 Documentary showing testing of the Genie missile.

Local Identifier: 342-USAF-29521/National Archives Identifier: 68126

 

From January 1, 2015 through March 31, 2015 the following records were declassified.

Motion Pictures:

Local Identifier           Title

342-USAF-29521       MB-1 Documentary

 

Sound Recordings:

Local Identifier           Title

No sound recordings were declassified during this quarter.

 

Descriptive information for declassified records can be accessed by searching for the item number, ex. “341-IR-38-56”, in NARA’s Catalog. You may also search on the Declassification Project Number (NND), if you know one. For example, searching on the declassification number “NND 64803” returns entries that are part of Declassification Project 64803. A list of declassified textual records can be found on the National Declassification Center’s web page.

Check out the post “From Top Secret Vault to Open Stacks: Declassification of Moving Images” to learn more about the declassification process. Lists of other recently declassified moving images and sound recordings can be located by clicking on the Declassification Quarterly Reports category on the left side of the blog.



This post was written by Heidi Holmstrom. Heidi works in the Motion Picture Preservation Lab, which is responsible for performing conservation and preservation work on motion picture records held across the National Archives.

This month the National Archives Museum in Washington, DC opened a brand new exhibit, Spirited Republic: Alcohol in American HistoryThe exhibit contains many records from NARA’s holdings, including films digitized right here in our Motion Picture Preservation Lab!

Spirited Republic highlights how the United States government’s policies towards alcohol have changed over time, including the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcohol was prohibited by law. The end of Prohibition is covered extensively in the Universal Newsreel collection. Here we present to you a motion picture timeline of the United States as it transitioned from “dry” back to “wet”.

alcoholtrainCitizens ride on carts loaded with alcohol prepared for shipment at the end of Prohibition.  (Still from Universal News Vol. 5, Rel. 197)

The 21st Amendment to the Constitution, ending Prohibition, was proposed by Congress on February 20, 1933. Prior to full repeal of the 18th Amendment, President Roosevelt signed the Cullen-Harrison Act, which amended the Volstead Act to allow the manufacture and sale of beer with a 3.2% alcohol content. Previously, the Volstead Act had prohibited the sale of any beverage with an alcohol content above 0.5%. The signing of the Cullen-Harrison Act on March 22, 1933, led to much rejoicing . . . even among Congressmen.

Throughout 1933, individual states convened ratifying conventions to take up the proposed 21st Amendment. By the time of this November 9, 1933, newsreel release, 30 states had already ratified the amendment and its adoption was all but assured. It was on target for ratification by December 5th, with legal alcohol to begin flowing on December 15th. But as you can see from this newsreel, many people were already getting a head start . . .

On December 6, 1933, Universal released this celebratory newsreel story as repeal became law. Alcohol shipments shifted into high gear and revelers openly toasted its return. (Sadly, we do not have the narration for this film, but jump ahead to 49 seconds in the video to hear a rousing drinking song.)

The repeal of Prohibition was a great blow to the Temperance movement that inspired it, but though their voice was muted, these organizations did not disappear. A 1937 newsreel contained a story about the national convention of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, whose members stated their firm belief that Prohibition would return to the United States.

BONUS NEWSREEL! How do you make the perfect gin fizz? In 1935 Louisiana Senator Huey Long was featured in a newsreel about this New Orleans specialty. Even though he professes to be “strictly on the water-wagon,” Senator Long samples a New York bartender’s take on a gin fizz not one, but three times to confirm it’s the real deal. Before taking the first sip, he reminds the bartender that the only reason he’s doing this is “to help you out . . . I wouldn’t touch a drop of it if I wasn’t trying to help you find out if you’ve mixed it right!”

Spirited Republic: Alcohol in American History may be viewed in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery of the National Archives Museum in Washington, DC. The exhibit runs through January 10, 2016.

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