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Long considered an essential accessory, this week’s featured Universal News story shows us the latest in hat fashions for the 1956-1957 winter season.

From the release sheet:

HAT FASHIONS
In New York, creations of the country’s foremost milliners for the November to January season are previewed. Ranging from chic miniature pillboxes to resplendent toques and turbans, the mood is appropriately festive.

hats-3

 A range of the latest hat fashions are modeled.

You may view the complete reel, which includes stories about Hurricane Flossie, and the death of athlete Babe Didrikson, known as the world’s greatest woman athlete, among others, on our YouTube Channel. The soundtrack for this reel no longer exists.

About the Universal Newsreel Collection at NARA:

The Universal Newsreel Collection is one of the most used motion picture collections at the National Archives and Records Administration. Universal Newsreels were shown in movie theaters twice a week, from 1929 until 1967, and covered a wide range of American life and history during that time period. Each release usually contained five to seven stories averaging two minutes in length.

In 1974, Universal deeded its edited newsreel and outtake collection to the United States through the National Archives (NARA), and did not place any copyright restrictions on its use (some stories may contain other underlying intellectual property or proprietary use rights).

While Universal disposed of many of the soundtracks, leaving the newsreels incomplete, supplementary material like scripts, shot lists, and event programs can be found in the production files, available for research at Archives II in College Park, Maryland.

Learn more about the Universal Newsreel Collection in this post and in this Prologue article. Watch other Universal Newsreels in our research room, in OPA, and on this playlist.



Today’s post was written by Burton Blume, a brand consultant/creative strategist based in Tokyo, Japan. He contacted us last year when we featured footage shot by his father, Lt. Wilbur T. Blume. In part one of this series of posts, Blume traced his father’s story up to when Lt. Blume was assigned the task of producing a film about the training of 340th Bomb Group air crews. In part two, Blume discussed Catch-22 author Joseph Heller’s involvement in the film. In this final installment, Blume looks to the 340th Bomb Group War Diaries for more evidence of the inspiration for Heller’s classic novel. 

The War Diaries

Literary scholars should note that during the time Training During Combat was being produced from July-September 1944, the airmen of the 340th were flying some of their most critical and dangerous missions over targets in northern Italy and southern France. For my father, Joe Heller and the other men of the 340th Bomb Group, this would have been a period of intense exhilaration and fear.

The War Diaries are a series of daily observations about life in the group. Composed by an officer in Group Operations, they are often no longer than a paragraph long and are written in an informal manner. The 57th Bomb Wing Association has made these documents available online.

WTB & Flak Fodder II Crew

Lt. Blume (3rd from left) with the crew of Flak Fodder II.
Photo courtesy of Burton Blume.

During the second half of 1944, the War Diary of the 340th Bomb Group provides additional insights that help us understand Col. Cathcart’s PR program and the themes that Heller exploits for satirical effect in Catch-22:

“Squadrons are trying to get as many medals and decorations for their men as possible, and seem to be heroicizing many a routine action in the process. Each unit in the 340th group is trying to raise its bombing efficiency above the other, and the 340th is doing its best to outdistance the other two B-25 groups. Public relations, as a result of Colonel Chapman’s interest, is trying to turn out more pictures and stories on personnel than it ever did before.”

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, June 10, 1944

Wing PRO, 1st Lt. John W. Dillon, Florida, arrived to analyze and inject some adrenalin as well as converse with Colonel Chapman regarding the PRO situation here in the Group. Principalling [sic] the endeavor will be to boost the Group’s production of PR material several thousand percent, and to attempt equaling the volume of output of other Groups in this wing. If necessary, though far from his preference, the Colonel agreed to permit what he referred to as “Rubber Stamp Stories” so as to meet the desired volume…

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, August 3, 1944

Bombardier’s skills and training were subject to special scrutiny:

Captain Eggers, Group P.I. Officer continues to be pestered by grieved lead bombardiers claiming that their pattern of bombs were not the bombs to overshoot the target etc. But photographs seldom deceive the trained eye and so long it is known what order the boxes bombed in their run over the target, there is little ground for argument…

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, August 7, 1944

Nose_down_B-25

Photo courtesy of Burton Blume.

Provisioning the 340th often involved special logistics and negotiating skills:

The Catania Mission returned partially successful with a total of 200 Litres of Assorted beverages for the Enlisted Men’s club and an endless assortment of fresh vegetables including some 1800 eggs for headquarters’ mess…

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, August 13, 1944

As the mission limit was raised, the stress of combat began to show, and some men took their complaints to the CO:

Something entirely new in the way of disciplinary problems cropped up today. The up-cropping is the result of the recent order of this Wing that the men are to fly till they can fly no more. So many of the men having come into combat with a seeming understanding that at fifty they would be entitled to furloughs or rotation back to the States, and later to have the ante raised to 53 and now raised indefinitely find themselves grumbling quite loudly. On the morning of the completion of their 55th mission two gunners and several officers turned to the Squadron C.O. telling him that they thought they had had enough flying and hoped to be taken off combat status. The two gunners are now in the guard house under charges of misbehaving before the enemy. Actually all that was involved was their telling the C.O. their intentions to no longer fly. It is apparent that the Group Commander and Wing Commander are both interested in having the charges pressed if for no other purpose than to have a test case upon which to base further action. Other combat members of the Group have grievously resented this reaction of the Colonel and have lost much of the respect previously held toward him. The matter is now under investigation…

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, August 20, 1944

Blume&Karner_TDC

Filming Training During Combat. Photo courtesy of Burton Blume.

Through the following interweaving diary entries that mention Training During Combat, the mission limit being raised and medals being awarded, the imaginary world of Catch-22 begins to come into focus.

“The 340th Group, it appears, will get into the motion picture business to a greater extent than ever before, in the near future. In the past the Group has carried newsreel and combat film cameramen on missions, and much movie footage has also been taken of our personnel on the ground, our planes and installations, but now the Group is to help make an orientation or general information film on the extent of training undergone by air crews while flying combat. The Story and “shooting script” have already been produced by 2nd Lt. Wilbur T. Blume of Oxford, Ohio, commander of the Ninth Combat Camera detachment here, and Tech Sergeant Hickey, of Group Public Relations. The film will be called “Training During Combat” and will show how a replacement crew arrives at the 340th base and continues training throughout an entire tour of combat duty. The project still requires the perusal and approbation of Colonel Chapman, Group Commander, but apparently he will be very happy for the opportunity to “plug” the Group, his organization…”

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, September 7, 1944

“Lt. Wilbur T. Blume of Ohio and the 9th Combat Camera Detachment of which he was C.O. and which had been with us for some time, moved out lock, stock and barrel, destination Florence. Before leaving he completed his motion picture of the Group. Lt. Blume worked hard and long at this, covering every aspect of this Group from an operational, social and administrative point of view…”

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, October 8, 1944

“Men with sixty combat missions are no longer automatically placed on rotation to go home. From now on sixty missions merely qualifies a man to appear before the medical Disposition Board and certainly with no assurance that they will be found needy of a rest…”

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, October 29, 1944

“1st Lt. Wilbur T. Blume of 9th Combat Camera Unit dropped in to see the PRO today and tell him “Training During Combat” was given a favorable review in New York where all combat camera films are sent for processing, review and distribution. The production mentioned was made by Lt. Blume last summer at the 340th group and showed how our crews continue training activities while they are flying combat missions.”

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, December 26,1944

“A special medal awarding formation was held today for combat crew members who are awaiting orders to go home after finishing their missions. General Knapp made the presentations, as usual.”

The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, December 28, 1944

Set against this background, one can’t help but wonder whether the discrepancy between the PR film’s view of the war and the reality of combat-induced stress stimulated Heller’s fertile imagination to create the situations and characters that would come to life when he began writing Catch-22 nine years later.



Today’s post was written by Burton Blume, a brand consultant/creative strategist based in Tokyo, Japan. He contacted us last year when we featured footage shot by his father, Lt. Wilbur T. Blume. In part one of this series of posts, Blume traced his father’s story up to when Lt. Blume was assigned the task of producing a film about the training of 340th Bomb Group air crews. 

Training During Combat and Catch-22

As more and more of my father’s service career emerged, I began to think more of Joseph Heller and Catch-22. Were some of the people in Dad’s photos models for characters in the book? Dan Setzer, son of another 340th veteran, wrote an article identifying many of the real-life people that Heller had based his characters on. I was able to assist Dan by identifying another: the young pilot who had flown Heller’s plane during an extremely dangerous mission over Avignon during August 1944. This episode clearly provided the inspiration for a recurring nightmare in Catch-22 when a young gunner is seriously wounded by flak as the pilot takes evasive maneuvers. Were other identifications possible?

In 2012, Patricia Chapman Meder, daughter of Col. Chapman, published The True Story of Catch-22, the Real Men and Missions of Joseph Heller’s 340th Bomb Group in World War II. Using both military records and personal resources, Ms. Meder also identified real-life individuals who served as inspiration for some of Heller’s fictional characters. However, what really electrified me was “Appendix B” which contained stills and promotional flyers for Training During Combat. There on page 236 were the credits with my father’s name, and two shots of him behind the camera. In one photo an arrow points to Joseph Heller. He is leaning over maps with another officer, his hat set way back on his head of thick black hair.

Training_During_Combat_(Blume,Heller,O'Brien)

Filming Training During Combat. Joseph Heller (as “Pete”) receives navigation training.
Photo courtesy of Burton Blume.

I already had copies of the photos, but the positive identification of Heller unlocked another avenue of investigation. Heller obviously appeared in one scene of the film. Was he in others as well? Over the years only a few photos of Heller have emerged from his days on Corsica. Now, I realized, there was perhaps motion picture footage shot by my father.

My search led me to the National Archives. A NARA blog had already featured a short, silent film my father shot about a Christmas party for Corsican children near Alesani. (4-year old Dominique Taddei and his playmates appear in this film!) Staff at NARA put the search into high gear.

Earlier this year, the team at NARA struck gold. They found nine reels of unedited footage from Training During Combat that was shot by my father. The combined running time of this footage is nearly 73 minutes. Of this, over eight minutes contain scenes showing Joseph Heller in uniform. Also found in the archives were some important production documents including a story treatment, and a full cutting script and narration written by my father and Sgt. Frank Hickey. (Click the links for downloadable PDFs of the story treatment and script.)

We could not locate a completed version of Training During Combat, but NARA staff created this highlight video from the nine reels of raw footage shot by Lt. Wilbur T. Blume.

The story follows the activities of a replacement crew that have just arrived at the forward base at Alesani and follows their progress as they go through the indoctrination and technical training needed to perform their missions. There are two protagonists in this film: a pilot named “Bob” and a bombardier named “Pete.” Photogenic young Joe Heller plays Pete.

Like my father, Heller was a B-25 bombardier. Both of them would have been intimately familiar with the training routines depicted in the film.

HellerMaps

Capt. Cornelius O’Brien trains the “new bombardier” (Joseph Heller).

We see Heller’s group climbing out of a C-47 transport and arriving at GHQ as veteran crews return from a mission. We see the new arrivals greeting CO Willis Chapman and Maj. Randall Cassada, a wild, wacky grin breaking across Heller’s face as he shakes the colonel’s hand. We see Heller in the map room, reviewing targets and bomb plots with Capt. Cornelius O’Brien. He see Heller on top of a “bomb trainer” using the famed Norden bombsight, one of the most advanced technologies to come out of the war. We see Heller aloft in the cramped Plexiglas nose of the B-25 looking exactly like actor Alan Arkin playing “Yossarian” in the 1970 film of Catch-22.

HellerChapman

Heller shakes the hand of Col. Willis Chapman as the new crew is introduced to their CO.

There’s also a scene with Capt. George Wells, Director of Training, who flew a record-breaking 102 bombing missions. There’s “Bob” in the “Link Trainer,” flying blind as he practices evasive maneuvers. There’s a rubber dinghy being removed from a fuselage hatch on the top of a B-25 to demonstrate emergency procedures for ditching at sea. There’s the gunnery trainer with its pressurized squirt guns that make one chuckle. And there’s an aerial shot of practice bombs falling on Pianosa, a small rocky island that is the imaginary setting of Catch-22.

Over and again, these scenes evoke the characters and world of Heller’s satirical, groundbreaking novel. The footage is priceless.

Epilogue

Lieutenant Wilbur T. Blume flew 34 combat missions and went on to produce several other PR films including Blood Goes to Battle as well as a short about recovering stolen Florentine art treasures from the Nazis. After the war, he moved to Los Angeles where he received a Masters degree in filmmaking from the University of Southern California. In 1955, he won an Academy Award for The Face of Lincoln, a documentary he produced while teaching at the USC Cinema Department. He later produced and directed numerous films for the Department of Defense, and was head of Motion Picture and Television Policy for the USIA from 1974 to 1980. He died in 1989.

HellerPlane

Joseph Heller performs a practice bombing in Training During Combat.

Lieutenant Joseph Heller flew 60 combat missions as a bombardier. After the war, he studied English at USC and NYU on the GI Bill. Heller later received his M.A. in English from Columbia University and spent a year as a Fulbright Scholar at St. Catherine’s College, Oxford. He taught at several universities in the early 50’s before finding work in a small NY advertising agency. He began writing Catch-22 in 1953 and published the first chapter in 1955. First published in 1961, the novel has sold over 10 million copies and is considered a modern classic. The book was made into a motion picture in 1970 and is listed #7 on Modern Library’s Best 100 Novels of the 20th Century. Other novels by Joseph Heller include Something Happened (1974), Good as Gold (1979), God Knows (1984), Picture This (1988), Closing Time (1994), and Portrait of an Artist, as an Old Man (2000). He died in 1999.



Today’s post was written by Burton Blume, a brand consultant/creative strategist based in Tokyo, Japan. He contacted us last year when we featured footage shot by his father, Lt. Wilbur T. Blume. We were intrigued by additional information Burton Blume was able to add to previously unexamined motion picture records. In this series of posts, Burton Blume relates stories of his father’s experience in the 9th Combat Camera Unit and of making a training film in Corsica that starred Catch-22 author Joseph Heller.

My Journey into My Father’s Past

When I was growing up, my father’s references to his military service were anecdotal; he never boasted about his exploits. He did, however, indulge my older brother and me in our fascination with WWII aircraft, particularly the B-25. There was an old black binder with a few prints from his days with the 340th Bomber Group but the motion pictures were nowhere to be found. We also inquired about Joseph Heller’s great antiwar novel, Catch-22, which we knew was inspired by the author’s wartime experience flying B-25s out of Corsica. Dad said he recognized some of the situations and characters in the book, but it was years before he came to appreciate Heller’s wise-guy sense of humor. When Dad passed away in 1989, he took his memories with him.

Cameraman_Blume-cropLt. Wilbur T. Blume poses with a 35mm motion picture camera. 
Photo courtesy of Burton Blume.

My personal journey into my father’s war began in 2008 when I read an article in the International Herald Tribune about Corsican historian Dominique Taddei and his book about the American bomber squadrons, USS Corsica. We began to write to each other and soon I was on the trail of Dad’s wartime photos.  I knew about the old black binder, but where was it now? And were there any others?

I finally located a small storage room in Seattle where my brother had put some of my parents’ possessions. It didn’t look promising. We removed everything to have a closer look. There, in the deepest corner, we discovered treasure: two boxes containing documents, prints and over 200 4×5 negatives carefully folded in black paper and inserted in glassine envelopes. They were in perfect condition and revealed a whole world in crisp, black & white images.

Dad flew 34 missions as a bombardier and frequently doubled as a combat cameraman. Just 24 and a talented photographer, he had volunteered for the Army Air Corps after graduating from Ohio’s Miami University in June 1943. After completing flight school in Midland Texas, he returned to Oxford to marry his college sweetheart, Mary McQueary, in July. (Her wedding dress, which she made from a damaged silk parachute my father sent her, was featured in Life magazine.) The two of them moved to Greensboro, South Carolina, where Lt. Blume awaited his deployment.

In early March 1944, he received his orders. His flight hopped up the eastern seaboard to Newfoundland, crossed the cold Atlantic to the Azores, then made for Casablanca and Algiers. He arrived on Corsica on April 21st.  Liberated from German occupation in October 1943, the island provided several forward bases for U.S. Army Air Corps. Four squadrons of B-25J medium bombers were camped along its east coast to provide close support for the allied armies that were pushing north up the Italian peninsula and cut off the retreating Axis troops by bombing bridges. Dad was assigned as a bombardier flying out of Alesani field.

In addition to combat missions, he functioned as a PRO (public relations officer) He shot photos of officers, visiting VIPs and everyday life on the base. He photographed the formations of B-25s taking off, landing and returning from missions over Italy. He photographed bomb patterns on the targets below. In the early hours of May 13, 1944 the Luftwaffe conducted a night bombing raid on Alesani destroying 60 planes. The next day, Dad was out photographing the damage.

Combat Weekly Digest was a newsreel produced for the Army Air Forces from 1943-1945. This issue features “Blood Goes to Battle,” a story shot by Lt. Blume that details blood bank operations  in Naples.

From a historical point of view, one of the most remarkable things about the Second World War was the degree to which it was documented on film. Veteran Hollywood directors and cameramen, including John Ford, John Huston, George Stevens, William Wyler and Frank Capra volunteered for service. In addition, hundreds of young men with an aptitude for photography and cinema were identified, and pulled together to form “combat camera units” that were active in every theater of the war. Aerial combat photography contributed to bombing precision and accuracy while motion pictures had an increasingly important role in training, public relations and propaganda.

In June 1944, my father was reassigned to the newly formed 9th Combat Camera Unit. This opportunity changed the life of this aspiring young filmmaker. In his youthful enthusiasm, he designed an insignia for the 9th CCU, but I believe the only one that ever existed was the oversize patch he had made for his flight jacket.

Life in Corsica was more authentic than anything Lt. Blume had seen in Hollywood movies. His camera was his calling card on and off the base. He loved exploring the island in his free time, shooting photos of the local people and places he visited. Intrepid and resourceful, Lt. Blume knew how to get things done:

2nd Lt. Wilbur T. Blume, C.O. of the 9th Combat Camera Detachment here is currently making a movie film about the Red Cross distribution of doughnuts and coffee to our crews after their missions. He has film footage of our formations going out to the target, the bombs dropping over the target, the target area covered by smoke and the men eating and drinking during the interrogation. Production of one scene showing the Red Cross girls actually handing out the victuals was held up more than a week because the photogenic Red Cross girl was unavailable. Lt. Blume obtained two good-looking Red Cross girls in Bastia by having them sent down here on detached service to film the sequence. Fraud! Fraud!….. In a few days he will start on a film depicting the various types of training undergone by 340th air crews in between missions.

                           –The 340th Bomb Group War Diary, July 19, 1944

By the end of July 1944, Dad had flown 22 missions and had been decorated for heroism in aerial combat over Ferrara. The commanding officer, Col. Willis Chapman, assigned him to plan and produce a short documentary that would be called Training During CombatThe objective was to show the disciplined training exercises that contributed to the success of the 340th. Bombing accuracy had increased steadily through successive Mediterranean campaigns and earned the unit numerous citations.

Lt._Blume_writing

Lt. Wilbur T. Blume works on the script for Training During Combat, a film that starred Catch-22 author Joseph Heller.
Photo courtesy of Burton Blume.

There was considerable rivalry between various Groups under the 57th Bomb Wing. Each was vying for higher ratings in efficiency and bombing accuracy. Like other fields of human endeavor, promotions and careers were often linked to the success of these missions.

Produced under the Colonel’s watchful eye, Training During Combat was a more ambitious film than anything Lt. Blume had done before.

Join us tomorrow for part two, in which Burton Blume discusses finding Training During Combat and how Joseph Heller’s inspiration for the novel Catch-22 can be seen in the footage.



In this week’s Universal News story, an art show in Provincetown, Massachusetts features the artists as living canvases. The participants (whom the narrator identifies as hippies) were members of the Provincetown art community. Provincetown has a long history as an art colony, from the early 20th Century to today.

From the release sheet:

BODY PAINTING Provincetown “hippie” artists have an art show, using bodies as “living canvases.” It’s mostly in fun because none of the “paintings” agreed to be sold.

body-paint-2At a 1967 art show in Provincetown, Massachusetts, the participants were the art.

You may view the complete reel, which contains stories about deadly hurricanes, a visit to former president Harry S Truman by President Lyndon Baines Johnson, the World Bicycle Championship, and others, on our YouTube Channel.

About the Universal Newsreel Collection at NARA:

The Universal Newsreel Collection is one of the most used motion picture collections at the National Archives and Records Administration. Universal Newsreels were shown in movie theaters twice a week, from 1929 until 1967, and covered a wide range of American life and history during that time period. Each release usually contained five to seven stories averaging two minutes in length.

In 1974, Universal deeded its edited newsreel and outtake collection to the United States through the National Archives (NARA), and did not place any copyright restrictions on its use (some stories may contain other underlying intellectual property or proprietary use rights).

While Universal disposed of many of the soundtracks, leaving the newsreels incomplete, supplementary material like scripts, shot lists, and event programs can be found in the production files, available for research at Archives II in College Park, Maryland.

Learn more about the Universal Newsreel Collection in this post and in this Prologue article. Watch other Universal Newsreels in our research room, in OPA, and on this playlist.

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